abandon : relinquish verb [transitive] formal to let someone else position, power, or rights, especially unwillingly: The Duke was obliged to relinquish all rights and claims to the territory. | relinquish sth to sb: He refused to relinquish􀀆sovereignty to his son. | relinquish your hold/grip on sth: Richard stubbornly refused to relinquish his hold on the family business.leave, desert, quit, forsake verb past tense forsook past participle forsaken / / noun [transitive] literary
1 to leave someone, especially when you should stay because they need you: God will never forsake you.
2 to stop doing or leave something that you have or enjoy: We had to forsake the comfort of our hotel room and spend the night waiting at the airport.
also godforsaken
abate /@'beIt/ verb [intransitive, transitive] formal to become less strong or decrease, or to make something do this: We waited for the storm to abate. ?abatement noun [uncountable] : reduce, let up, decrease,diminish verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to become or make something become smaller or less important: The party's share of the electorate has diminished steadily. | diminish sth: These drugs diminish blood flow to the brain.
2 [transitive] to deliberately make someone or something appear less important or valuable than they really are: Don't let him diminish your achievements.
3 diminishing returns the idea that a point can be reached at which the profits or advantages you are getting stop increasing in relation to the effort you are making, lessen
abbreviate : shorten, curtail, brief, truncate, abridge
abhor verb abhorred, abhorring [transitive not in progressive]
formal to hate a kind of behaviour or way of thinking, especially because you think it is morally wrong: Some genuinely abhorred slavery, others were simply convinced by the economic arguments against it.: hate, detest, loathe verb [transitive not in progressive] to hate someone or something very much: Lucinda loathes spiders. | loathe doing sth: I absolutely loathe travelling.
abide : remain, sojourn, reside, inhabit
abject adjective
1 abject poverty/misery/failure etc the state of being extremely poor, unhappy, unsuccessful etc
2 an abject action or expression shows that you feel very ashamed: an abject apology
abjectly adverb
abjection noun [uncountable] :􀀆humiliate /hju:'mIlieIt/ verb [transitive]
to make someone feel ashamed and upset, especially by making them seem stupid or weak: Her boss humiliated her in front of all her colleagues.
humiliated adjective : I've never felt so humiliated in all my life!
- 2 -
contemptible adjective so unacceptable that you have no respect for the person involved: They were portrayed as contemptible cowards.
contemptibly adverb , base, mean
abolish : annul verb annulled, annulling [transitive often passive] technical to state that a marriage or legal agreement no longer exists
?annulment noun [countable, uncountable] nullify / verb [transitive] 1 law to officially state that something has no legal force: The claim was nullified by the court.2 formal to make something lose its effect or value: Inflation has nullified the recent wage increases.
?nullification /"n ?KfK'keISDn/ noun [uncountable] revoke
abound : teem, swarm
abreast adverb
1 walk/ride etc abreast to walk, ride etc next to each other : two/three/four abreast etc (=with two or more people next to each other)
2 keep abreast of to make sure that you know all the most recent facts or information about a particular subject or situation: Henry tries to keep abreast of the latest developments in computing.
alongside
abrupt : sudden, hasty adjective done in a hurry, especially with bad results: He soon regretted􀀆his hasty
decision. | a hasty breakfast hastily adverb hastiness noun [uncountable]
absent-minded : oblivious adjective [not before noun] not knowing about, or not noticing, something that is happening􀀆around you;
- 3 -
unaware[+ of/to]: Mallory set off, utterly oblivious of the danger.obliviousness noun [uncountable] inattentive􀀆
absolute : complete, perfect absorb : swallow, engulf abstract : theoretical, unpracticed
absurd adjective
completely stupid or unreasonable; ridiculous: Don't be absurd!􀀆|􀀆It seems quite absurd to expect anyone to drive for 3 hours just for a 20 minute meeting.
absurdity noun [countable, uncountable] ridiculous, foolish, stupid
abundance noun [singular, uncountable]
a large quantity of something : an abundance of: an abundance of wavy red hair | in abundance: Wild flowers grow in abundance on the hillsides.
plenty, profusion noun [singular, uncountable]
a supply or amount that is almost too large
[+ of]: The house was overflowing with a profusion of strange ornaments.
| in profusion: Corn marigolds grow in profusion in the
fields.
abuse : misuse, maltreat, ill-use,
reproach1 noun formal
1 [uncountable] blame or disapproval for the things you have done: Are you going already? he cried, his voice full of reproach. | beyond/above reproach formal (=impossible to criticize; perfect): His behaviour throughout this affair has been beyond reproach.
- 4 -
2 [countable] a remark that expresses criticism or disapproval: Her question was clearly a reproach.
3 a reproach to something that makes a person, society etc feel bad or ashamed; disgrace1: These derelict houses are a reproach to the city.
, slander
accelerate* : hurry, speed, hasten, quicken, speed up, expedite. accept : admit, approve, acknowledge access : approach
accidental adjective
happening without being planned or intended: an accidental discharge of toxic waste casual, contingent1􀀆adjective formal
dependent on something that is uncertain or that will happen in􀀆the future
[+ on/upon]: Further investment would be contingent upon the company's
profit performance.contingently adverb
accommodate verb
1 [transitive] to have or provide enough space for a particular􀀆number of people or things: The hall can only accommodate 200 people. | building bigger and bigger highways to accommodate more cars
2 [transitive] to give someone a place to stay, live, or work
suit, fit, adapt, hold, contain
accompany : escort, convoy
accomplish verb [transitive]
to succeed in doing something, especially after trying very hard; achieve: We have accomplished all we set out to do.􀀆fulfill,
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complete, achieve, execute
accord1 noun
1 of your own accord without being asked or forced to do something: It's better that she comes of her own accord.
2 [uncountable] formal a situation in which two people, ideas, or statements agree with each other : be in accord with: These results are in accord with earlier research. | in total/perfect accord: For once the President and myself were in total accord. | speak with one accord (=if two or more people speak with one accord they show total agreement with each other by what they say)
3 [countable] a formal agreement between countries or groups: the Helsinki accord on human rights
4 with one accord formal if two or more people do something with one accord they do it together: With one accord they rushed down to the lake.
agree, assent,concur verb concurred, concurring [intransitive] formal
1 to agree with someone or have the same opinion as them [+ with]: The judge stated that he concurred with the ruling.
2 to happen at the same time; coincide (1) : concur to do sth: Everything concurred to produce the desired effect.
account : explanation, exposition noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a clear and detailed explanation: a lucid exposition of educational theories
2 [countable] an important event at which industrial goods are shown
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## lucid adjective
1 expressed in a way that is clear and easy to understand: a lucid and accurate account of the day's events
2 a word meaning able to understand and think clearly, used especially about someone who is not always able to do this: In her more lucid moments the old lady would talk about her past.
lucidly adverb
lucidity noun [uncountable]
accurate : correct, precise
accuse : indict verb [intransitive, transitive] law especially AmE
to officially charge someone with a criminal offence : indict sb for sth: He was indicted for fraud before a grand jury. ?indictment noun [countable, uncountable]
## fraud /frO:d ?r ?d/ noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a method of illegally getting money from someone, often by using clever and complicated methods: financial losses due to theft or fraud | tax/share/bankruptcy etc fraud (=fraud in a particular financial area)
2 [countable] someone who deceives people to gain money, friendship etc: She realized later that the insurance salesman had been a fraud.
, charge, impeach, blame
accustomed : customary, habitua, wont1 noun old-fashioned as is sb's wont used to say that it is someone's habit to do something: He spoke for too long, as is his wont.
achieve : accomplish, perform , effect 10 PERSONAL THINGS effects [plural] formal the things that someone owns; belongings:
- 7 -
Don's few personal effects were in a suitcase under the bed.
acid : sour, biting acknowledge : admit, confess, own
acquaintance 1 [countable] someone you know, but who is not a close friend
2 make sb's acquaintance formal to meet someone for the first time: I'm pleased to make your acquaintance.
3 of your acquaintance formal a person of your acquaintance is someone that you know: a certain lawyer of my acquaintance
4 [uncountable] formal knowledge or experience of a particular subject : have a passing/nodding acquaintance with (=have only slight knowledge or experience of something): I must admit I have only a passing acquaintance with his books.
5 on further/closer acquaintance formal when you start to know someone or something better: associate, companion
acquire : gain, win, earn, secure1 verb [transitive]
1 to get or achieve something that will be permanent, especially after a lot of effort: UN negotiators are still trying to secure the release of the hostages. | a deal to secure the company's future
2 to make something safe from being attacked, harmed, or lost [+ against]: Extra men will be needed to secure the camp against attack.
3 to fasten or tie something firmly in a particular position: a􀀆tent secured with heavy wooden pegs | secure sth to sth: John secured the boat firmly to the jetty.
- 8 -
4 to legally promise that if you cannot pay back money you have􀀆borrowed, you will give the lender goods or property of the same value instead: a secured loan
actual : tangible, definite, genuine adjective
1 a genuine feeling, desire etc is one that you really feel, not one you pretend to feel in order to deceive people; sincere: The reforms are motivated by a genuine concern for the disabled.
2 something genuine really is what it seems to be; real: It's either a genuine diamond or a very good fake.
3 someone who is genuine is honest and friendly and you feel you can trust them: Dan's a real genuine guy.
4 the genuine article informal a person, or sometimes a thing, that is a􀀆true example of their type: If you want to meet a real Southerner, Jake is the genuine article.
genuinely adverb : He genuinely believes in what he sells. genuineness noun [uncountable]
acute : pointed, sharp, intense adjective
1 having a very strong effect or felt very strongly: intense pain | The heat was intense.
2 there is intense activity, effort etc when people are working, trying, or thinking extremely hard: a period of intense concentration and study
3 having feelings or opinions that are extremely strong, serious etc: She can be so intense, it makes me exhausted. | an intense
- 9 -
young man ?intensely adverb : intensely exciting ?intensity noun [uncountable] , poignant, severe, fierce,violent, keen,􀀆
shrewd adapt : suit, adjust, fit address : 1. residence, abode
2. speech, lecture, discourse1 noun 1 [countable] a serious speech or piece of writing on a particular subject [+ on/upon]: Professor Grant delivered a long discourse on aspects of moral theology.
2 [uncountable] serious conversation between people: You can't expect meaningful discourse when you two disagree so violently.
3 [uncountable] the language used in particular kinds of speech􀀆or writing: scientific discourse
adequate : sufficient, suitable adhere : stick, cleave, cling adjourn : suspend, postpone, defer verb deferred, deferring [transitive]
to delay something until a later date: Let's defer the decision􀀆for a few weeks.
defer to sb/sth phrasal verb [transitive] formal
to agree to accept someone's opinion or decision because you have respect for that person, delay
adjust : fit, adapt, suit
administer : manage, conduct, execute, direct, supervise
admirable : praiseworthy, fine, excellent
admire : esteem, revere
admit : acknowledge, own, confess, receive
adore : worship, esteem, revere
adorn* : decorate, beautify, ornament
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advance : improve, progress, propose, offer advantage : benefit, profit, behalf noun on behalf of also in behalf of AmE
a) instead of someone, or as their representative: On behalf of􀀆everyone here, may I wish you a very happy retirement. | The President can't be here today, so I'm going to speak in his behalf. b) because of someone: Oh, don't go to any trouble on my behalf. adversary : antagonist, opponent, enemy, foe adversity : calamity, catastrophe, disaster, misfortune advocate : support, argue for, speak for affect : 1. influence, impress, touch, stir
2. pretend, feign, assume affectation noun [countable, uncountable]
behaviour that is not sincere or natural: Those beatnik clothes􀀆of his are just an affectation: airs, pretense,
affection : attachment noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a feeling that you like or love someone or something and that you would be unhappy without them
[+ to/for]: I did feel a certain sense of attachment for the strange old guy.
2 [uncountable] belief in and loyalty towards a particular idea􀀆[+ to/for]: old people's attachment to traditional customs and ways
3 [countable] a part that you can put onto a machine to make it􀀆do different things: a versatile food mixer that comes with a range of attachments
4 on attachment working for a particular organization, especially for a short period of time: He was sent on attachment to their
- 11 -
offices in Hong Kong, amity, love affluent : rich, opulent adjective
a) very beautiful, highly decorated, and made from expensive materials; luxurious: the opulent splendour of the Sultan's palace b) very rich: opulent officials in large limousines 2 growing healthily and in large amounts; luxuriant, abundant
affront1 verb [transitive usually passive] to offend or insult someone, especially by not showing respect : offend, insult, abuse􀀆
aggregate1 noun [countable]
1 the total after a lot of different parts or figures have been added together: Society is not just an aggregate of individuals. | on aggregate BrE (=when the points are added together): Manchester United won 2-1 on aggregate. | in (the) aggregate (=as a group or in total)
2 [singular, uncountable] technical sand or small stones that are used in making concrete1􀀆: assemble, collect, accumulate, gather
aggressive : offensive, assaulting, militant adjective
a militant organization or person is willing to use strong or violent action in order to achieve political or social change: militant trade unionists | After the assassination of Martin Luther King, black leaders became more militant.
?militant noun [countable] ?militancy noun [uncountable] ?militantly adverb agile adjective
1 able to move quickly and easily: Andy climbed the tree, agile􀀆as a monkey.
- 12 -
2 agile mind the ability to think very quickly and intelligently quick, light,
nimble adjective
1 able to move quickly and easily with light neat movements: a nimble climber | nimble fingers
2 a nimble mind/brain/wit an ability to think quickly or understand things easily: They liked his nimble mind -his ability to come up with original ideas.
?nimbly adverb
?nimbleness noun [uncountable]
agree : assent, consent, accede, concede, comply ail verb 1 [transitive] formal to cause difficulties for someone or something 2 old-fashioned [intransitive, transitive] to be ill, or to make someone
feel ill or unhappy: sick, ill, unwell aim : direct, point alarm : fright noun
1 [singular] the feeling you have when something frightens you : give sb a fright (=do something that makes someone feel afraid): You gave me such a fright creeping up on me like that! | get/have a fright: I got an awful fright when your dog rushed out at me. | get/have the fright of your life (=to feel extremely afraid)
2 [uncountable] a feeling of fear: The child was wild with fright and began to scream.
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3 take fright to be very afraid of something, especially so that you run away from it: The bird took fright and flew away.
4 look a fright old-fashioned to look untidy or unattractive
, terror, panic, dismay
alert : attentive, vigilant adjective
giving careful attention to what is happening, so that you will􀀆notice any danger or illegal activity: Please remain vigilant at all times and report anything suspicious.
vigilantly adverb , watchful, wary, heedful
alien : strange, foreign
allege / verb [transitive]
to say that something is true or that someone has done something wrong even though this has not been proved : allege (that): It was alleged that policemen had accepted bribes. | be alleged to be/do sth: The new missiles are alleged to be capable of travelling enormous distances.􀀆: declare, affirm, assert
alleviate verb [transitive]
to make something less painful or difficult: a medicine to alleviate cold symptoms | measures to alleviate poverty
alleviation / noun [uncountable] : ease, lessen, abate
alliance : association, partnership, affiliation noun [countable, uncountable]
1 the fact of being involved with or a member of a political or􀀆religious organization: What are her political affiliations?
2 the act of a smaller group or organization joining a larger one,􀀆union􀀆
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allot : divide, distribute, assign, allocate verb [transitive]
to decide officially that a particular amount of money, time etc or something such as a house or job etc should be used for a particular purpose : allocate sb sth: The duty officer allocated us a cabin for the night. | allocate sth for sth: one million dollars allocated for disaster relief | allocate sth to: You need to decide how much time to allocate to each exam question.
: permit, grant
ally : align, confederate, join, combine, affiliate, conjoin. alter : modify, change, vary alternate1 adjective [usually before noun]
1 two alternate actions, situations, or states happen one after􀀆the other in a repeated pattern: walls painted with alternate strips of yellow and green | alternate rain and sunshine
2 especially AmE used instead of the one that was intended to be used; alternative1 (1): We have to have an alternate plan in case it rains.
3 happening or doing something on one of every two days: He works alternate days. | alternate Mondays/weekends etc: She visits her parents on alternate weekends.: interchange, occur successively
alternative : choice, option
altitude : height, elevation,
amass* : collect, gather, accumulate
- 15 -
amaze : astound, surprise, astonish
ambiguous adjective
1 having more than one meaning, so that it is not clear which is intended: an ambiguous sentence
2 difficult to understand: His role in the affair is ambiguous. ?ambiguously adverb ?ambiguity /"{mbK'gju:Kti/ noun [countable, uncountable]
: unclear, vague
amicable adjective
an amicable agreement, relationship etc is one in which people feel friendly towards each other and do not want to quarrel: an amicable settlement that was acceptable to both sides ?amicably adverb ?amicability /"{mIk@'bIlKti/ noun [uncountable]􀀆kind, friendly􀀆
ample : large, spacious, vast, great
amplify : enlarge, expand, magnify
amuse : entertain, please, cheer
ancestor : forefather (Ant) descendant
anchor : fix, secure verb [transitive]
1 to get or achieve something that will be permanent, especially after a lot of effort: UN negotiators are still trying to secure the release of the hostages. | a deal to secure the company's future
2 to make something safe from being attacked, harmed, or lost
- 16 -
[+ against]: Extra men will be needed to secure the camp against attack.
3 to fasten or tie something firmly in a particular position: a􀀆tent secured with heavy wooden pegs | secure sth to sth: John secured the boat firmly to the jetty.
4 to legally promise that if you cannot pay back money you have􀀆borrowed, you will give the lender goods or property of the same value instead: a secured loan, fasten
ancient : old, aged, antique, antiquate
anger : resentment noun [uncountable]
a feeling of anger because something has happened that you think is unfair wrath, fury noun
1 [uncountable] extreme, often uncontrolled anger: I was shaking with fury.
2 [countable] a feeling of extreme anger : in a fury: 밎o on then! ?shouted Jamie in a fury. 밪ee if I care! ?| fly into a fury (=quickly become very angry): Paul flew into one of his furies.
3 much to sb's fury/ to the fury of sb if something is done much to someone's fury, it makes them very angry: The report was leaked to the press, much to the president's fury.
4 a fury of a state of very busy activity or strong feeling: She was listening with such a fury of concentration that she did not notice Arthur had left.
5 like fury informal with great effort or energy: We went out and played like fury.
6 the fury of the wind/sea/waves etc used to describe bad weather conditions: At last the fury of the storm lessened.
7 [countable] Fury one of the􀀆three snake-haired goddesses in ancient Greek
- 17 -
stories, who punished crime, indignation, rage
angry : indignant adjective
expressing anger and surprise, because you feel insulted or unfairly treated: Harriet was indignant at the suggestion that she might need help. | anger expressed by an indignant snort
indignantly adverb :becourse I didn't tell her!Sasha said indignantly.
, resentful, irate ***snort1 verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to express anger, impatience, or amusement by breathing air noisily through your nose: 밅ertainly not, ?he snorted.
[+ with]: She snorted with contempt at the suggestion.
2 [intransitive] to make a loud noise by forcing air out through your nose: The horse snorted and stamped its hoof impatiently.
3 [transitive] slang to take drugs by breathing them in through􀀆your nose: snorting cocaine
anguish noun [uncountable] mental or physical suffering caused by extreme pain or worry: the anguish of not knowing what had happened to her anguished adjective : pain, pang, suffering, agony noun [countable, uncountable]
1 very severe pain: the agony of arthritis | be in agony: The poor guy was in agony. | be agony spoken: It was agony having my wisdom teeth out.
2 a very sad, difficult, or unpleasant situation: It was agony not knowing if she would live. see also pile on the agony pile2, prolong the agony prolong
- 18 -
annihilate* : remove, clear, abolish, liquidate verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to close a business or company in order to pay its debts
2 [transitive] technical to pay a debt: The stock will be sold to liquidate the loan.
3 [transitive] informal to kill someone, erase, exterminate verb [transitive] to kill large numbers of people or animals of a particular type so that
they no longer exist exterminator noun [countable] extermination noun [countable, uncountable] ,􀀆obliterate verb [transitive]
1 to destroy something so completely that no sign of it remains: The entire village was obliterated by incendiary bombs.
2 to cover something completely so that it cannot be seen
3 to remove a thought, feeling, or memory from someone's mind: Nothing could obliterate the memory of those tragic events. obliteration noun [uncountable] , eradicate
announce : proclaim, publish, declare
annoy : harass verb [transitive]
1 to treat someone unfairly by threatening them or being continuously unpleasant to them: Black teenagers are being constantly harassed by the police.
2 to annoy someone by continually interrupting them: Stop harassing me will you! I'm trying to work!
3 to continually attack an enemy, bother, worry, trouble
- 19 -
anonymous adjective
1 unknown by name: The benefactor wishes to remain anonymous.
2 done, sent, or given by someone who does not want their name to be known: an anonymous donation of ?,000 | anonymous phone call/letter etc (=often unpleasant or containing threats)
3 uninteresting features or qualities: grey, anonymous housing estates anonymity noun [uncountable] anonymously adverb : unnamed, unsigned
antagonist : opponent, adversary
antagonize also -ise􀀆verb [transitive] to annoy someone very much by doing something that they do not like: Do not do anything to antagonize your customers:􀀆counteract verb [transitive]
to reduce or prevent the bad effect of something, by doing something that has the opposite effect: a drug that counteracts the poison
counteraction noun [countable, uncountable]
anticipate : foresee, forecast
antipathy : dislike, disgust, hatred (Ant) sympathy
apathetic adjective
not excited about something and not caring whether it happens, or not interested in anything and unwilling to make an effort to change and improve things: an apathetic electorate
apathetically adverb : indifferent, unconcerned, uninterested
apex : tip, summit, zenith, acme, climax
- 20 -
appalled adjective very shocked by something very bad or unpleasant [+ by/at]: Rescue workers were appalled at what they saw.
: frighten, horrify, terrify, shock
apparel : clothes, dress, garb, attire, costume apparent : plain, clear, evident, obvious, conspicuous adjective
1 someone or something that is conspicuous is very easy to notice, especially because they are different from everything or everyone else around them: I felt very conspicuous in my suit - everyone else was in jeans.
2 unusually good, bad, skilful etc; remarkable: The campaign had been a conspicuous success.
3 conspicuous by your absence used to say that people noticed that you were not in the place you should have been 뾬pposite inconspicuous
conspicuously adverb conspicuousness noun [uncountable] ,manifest
appeal1 noun
1 [countable] an urgent request for something important such as􀀆money or help, especially to help someone in a bad situation
[+ for]: The United Nations' appeal for a ceasefire has been largely ignored by both sides. | appeal to sb to do sth: an appeal to parents to supervise their children | make/launch an appeal: In 1988 Bob Geldorf launched an urgent appeal for the famine victims.
2 [uncountable] a quality that makes you like someone or something, be interested in them, or want them: Much of Corfu's appeal lies in its lively night life.
- 21 -
[+ for]: The film has great appeal for young audiences. | popular/wide appeal (=liked by many people): CD-ROMs now have wider popular appeal. | sex appeal (=the quality of being sexually attractive): Marilyn Monroe had amazing sex appeal.
3 [countable, uncountable] a formal request to a court or to someone in authority asking for a decision to be changed [+ to]: an appeal to the European court of Human Rights 뾱ee also Court 쟯f 잸ppeal􀀆: entreaty noun [countable,
uncountable] formal a serious request in which you ask someone to do something for you , request, petition1 noun [countable]
1 a written request signed by a lot of people, asking someone in authority to do something or change something
[+ against]: They wanted me to sign a petition against experiments on animals. | draw up a petition: Local residents have drawn up a petition to protest the hospital closure.
2 an official letter to a law court, asking for a legal case to􀀆be considered: She is threatening to file a petition for divorce.
3 formal a formal prayer or request to someone in authority or to God or to a ruler
appease verb [transitive] to make someone less angry or stop them from attacking you by giving them
what they want􀀆: pacify, quiet, soothe, calm, tranquil adjective pleasantly calm, quiet, and peaceful: a tranquil village scene tranquilly adverb tranquillity BrE tranquility AmE noun [uncountable]: the tranquillity of
the Tuscan countryside
- 22 -
appendix noun plural appendixes or appendices [countable]
1 a small organ near your bowel (2) which has little or no use : have your appendix out (=have it removed)
2 a part at the end of a book containing additional information􀀆: supplement,
1 [+ to] something that is added or joined to something but is not part of it
2 technical an adverbial word or phrase that adds meaning to another part of a sentence, such as `on Sunday' in `They arrived on Sunday.'
applause noun [uncountable] the sound of many people hitting their hands together and shouting, to show that they have enjoyed something : thunderous applause (=very loud) | a round of applause (=a short period of applause): Let's have a round of applause for our speakers today.􀀆: acclamation noun [countable, uncountable] formal a loud expression of approval or welcome, acclaim
appliance noun [countable]
a piece of electrical equipment such as a cooker (1) or washing 쟭achine (1), used in people's homes: labour-saving domestic appliances
see machine1􀀆: instrument, apparatus noun plural plural apparatuses or appartus [countable, uncountable]
1 tools and machines used especially for scientific, medical, and technical purposes: the apparatus shown in the diagram | The astronauts have special breathing apparatus.
2 a system or process for doing something: the apparatus for settling industrial disputes, device, tool
- 23 -
apply : use, employ, utilize appoint : nominate, name, designate apportion : divide, allot, assign, allocate, appreciate verb
1 [transitive] to understand how good or useful someone or something is: Her abilities are not fully appreciated by her employer.
2 [transitive] to thank someone or be grateful for something they have done: I appreciated his help when we moved. | I would appreciate it if (=please do what I ask): I would appreciate it if you would turn the music down.
3 [transitive not in progressive] to understand how serious a situation or problem is or what someone's feelings are: I don't think you appreciate the difficulties his absence will cause.
4 [intransitive] to gradually become more valuable over a period of time: Most investments are expected to appreciate at a steady rate.
See pposite depreciate (1)􀀆: value, estimate
apprehension noun
1 [countable, uncountable] anxiety about the future, especially􀀆the worry that you will have to deal with something unpleasant or bad: a natural apprehension about being in hospital
2 [uncountable] the act of apprehending someone; arrest2
3 [uncountable] old use understanding: our apprehension of the nature of God
: anxiety, misgiving􀀆/"mIs'gIvI ?􀀆noun [countable, uncountable]􀀆a feeling of doubt, distrust, or fear about what might happen or about whether
- 24 -
something is right: She eyed Bert's pistol with misgiving. | have deep/serious misgivings: Opponents of nuclear energy have deep misgivings about its safety.
appropriate : suitable, proper, assign, apportion, allocate
apt adjective
1 apt to do something having a natural tendency to do something: Some of the staff are apt to arrive late on Mondays.
2 exactly right for a particular situation or purpose: an apt and telling remark
3 formal quick to learn and understand ?aptness noun [uncountable] :
1. incline1 verb [not in progressive] formal 1 TEND TO DO STH
a) to think that a particular belief or opinion is most likely to be right [+ to/towards]: He has always inclined to the belief that all men are capable of great evil. | incline to do sth: I incline to accept the official version of events.
b) to tend to behave in a particular way or to show a particular quality [+ to/towards]: The child has always inclined towards laziness.􀀆
2 INFLUENCE [transitive] if a situation, fact etc inclines you to do or think something, it influences you towards a particular action or opinion : incline sb to do sth: I know that you acted hastily, but that does not incline me to forgive you.
3 incline your head to bend your neck so that your head is lowered
- 25 -
4 TO SLOPE [intransitive, transitive] to be sloping at a particular angle or to make something do this
, disposed, prone adjective
1 likely to do something or suffer from something, especially something bad or harmful
[+ to]: Some plants are prone to a particular disease.
[prone to do sth]: Kids are all prone to eat junk food. | strike-prone/accident-prone etc: I never saw a girl more accident-prone.
2 formal lying down with the front of your body facing down: Colley lay prone in his bunk.
compare prostrate1 (1)
-proneness noun [uncountable] , liable, likely
2. proper, appropriate, correct aptly* : appropriately aptitude noun [countable, uncountable] natural ability or skill, especially in learning [+ for]: She has a real aptitude for drawing and painting.
: aptness, fitness, suitability
archaic : ancient, antiquated, antique
ardent adjective
1 showing strong positive feelings about an activity and determination to succeed at it: an ardent supporter of free trade
2 literary showing strong feelings of love: an ardent suitor ?ardently adverb : passionate, fervent, intense, eager, enthusiastic
- 26 -
ardor : eagerness, zeal, passion, enthusiasm
argue : debate, discuss, dispute
arouse verb [transitive]
1 arouse interest/expectations etc to make you become interested, expect something etc: Matt's behavior was arousing the interest of the neighbors.
2 arouse anger/fear/dislike etc to make someone feel very angry, afraid etc
3 to make someone feel sexually excited
4 formal to wake someone [+ from]: Anne had to be aroused from a deep sleep.
: animate, awaken, excite, incite, stimulate
arrange : order, array
arrogant adjective
so proud of your own abilities or qualities that you behave as if you are much more important than anyone else: I found him arrogant and overbearing.
arrogantly adverb : He strutted about the room arrogantly.
***strut1 /str ?/ verb strutted, strutting [intransitive]
1 to walk proudly with your head high and your chest pushed forwards, showing that you think you are important
[+ about/across etc]: Ryan was strutting around the office, issuing orders.
2 strut your stuff informal to show your skill at doing something: Look at Dave strutting his stuff on the dance floor.
haughty /adjective haughtier, haughtiest
- 27 -
behaving in a proud unfriendly way: a haughty laugh ?haughtily adverb ?haughtiness noun [uncountable] , insolent / / adjective
rude and not showing any respect: an insolent tone of voice | You insolent child! insolently adverb insolence noun [uncountable] overbear verb [transitive usually passive] past tense overborepast participle overborne to defeat someone or something
arrest : seize, apprehend verb [transitive]
1 formal if a criminal is apprehended, they are found and taken away by the police; arrest1 (1)
2 old use to understand something, capture
ascend : mount, soar,􀀆arise ascertain verb [intransitive, transitive] formal to find out if a fact that you think is true is really true: The police were never able to ascertain the true facts. [+ how/when/why etc]: He could not ascertain where the clouds ended
and the snow-covered rocks began. ascertainable adverb : determine, settle, discover
aspect : appearance, look, countenance1 noun formal
1 [countable] your face or your expression: the gloomy countenance of a disappointed child
2 [uncountable] support or approval aspire verb [intransitive] to desire and work towards achieving something important [+ to/after]: It was clear that Mrs Thatcher aspired to the leadership of
the party. | aspire to do sth: At that time, all serious artists aspired to go to Rome and paint.
: desire, long, yearn
- 28 -
assail : assault, attack
assassinate : murder, kill, slay
assemble : gather, congregate, collect, convene verb [intransitive, transitive] formal
if a group of people convene, or someone convenes them, they come together, especially for a formal meeting: The President's foreign policy advisers convened for an emergency session. | Shouldn't we convene a meeting about this?
assembly : congress, legislature, parliament noun [countable]
1 the group of people who are elected to make a country's laws and discuss important national affairs
2 Parliament the main law-making institution in the United Kingdom, which consists of the house 쟯f 쟠ommons and the house 쟯f 쟫ords : enter Parliament/get into Parliament (=be elected as a member of Parliament)
3 the period during which this institution meets: We expect to get these laws passed during the present parliament.
, diet 5 MEETING [countable] old use an official meeting to discuss political or church matters
assent : accede, consent
assess verb [transitive]
1 to make a judgment about a person or situation after thinking􀀆carefully about it: It's difficult to assess the effects of the new legislation just yet. | assess what/how etc: We've tried
- 29 -
to assess what went wrong.
2 to calculate the value or cost of something : assess sth at: They assessed the value of the house at over $250,000.
* : estimate, calculate, evaluate, appraise /@'preIz/ verb [transitive] to officially judge how successful, effective, or valuable someone or something is; evaluate: A dealer came to appraise the furniture.
assign : distribute, allot
associate : join, affiliate, unite, combine
assort : separate, classify / verb [transitive]
1 to decide what group a plant, animal, book etc belong to according to a system : classify sth as: Is this plant classified as a moss or a lichen?
2 to regard people or things as belonging to a particular type because they have the same physical features, qualities etc classifiable adjective group, sort, categorize
assume : 1. undertake􀀆2. pretend, affect
assure : convince
astonish : amaze, surprise, astound, shock, startle, daze, stun􀀆attach : fasten, affix, join, annex verb [transitive] to take control of a country or area next to your own, especially by using
force ?annexation /"{nek'seISFn/ noun [countable, uncountable] ?
- 30 -
attachment /@'t{tSm@nt/ noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a feeling that you like or love someone or something and that you would be unhappy without them􀀆
[+ to/for]: I did feel a certain sense of attachment for the strange old guy.􀀆
2 [uncountable] belief in and loyalty towards a particular idea􀀆[+ to/for]: old people's attachment to traditional customs and ways􀀆
3 [countable] a part that you can put onto a machine to make it􀀆do different things: a versatile food mixer that comes with a range of attachments􀀆
4 on attachment working for a particular organization, especially for a short period of time: He was sent on attachment to their offices in Hong Kong.􀀆: affection
attain verb [transitive] formal
1 to succeed in reaching a particular level or in getting something after trying for a long time: More women are attaining positions of power in public life.
2 to reach a high level: Share prices attained a high of $3.27. ?attainable adjective : This target should be attainable.
1. reach 2. acquire, procure, win attempt : try, seek
attend : 1. wait on, serve
attentive : heedful, alert, watchful, careful
attire* : clothing
- 31 -
attitude : position, bearing, pose1 verb
1 pose a problem/threat/challenge etc to cause a problem, danger, difficulty etc: Newton's challenge poses no threat to the leadership. | Rising unemployment is posing serious problems for the administration.
2 [intransitive, transitive] to sit or stand in a particular position in order to be photographed or painted, or to make someone do this
[+ for]: We posed for photographs after the graduation ceremony.
3 pose a question to ask a question, especially one that needs to be carefully thought about: The first chapter poses the question: What constitutes a democracy?
4 pose as sb to pretend to be someone else, in order to deceive people: Bryce was caught posing as a lawyer.
5 [intransitive] especially BrE to dress or behave like a fashionable, rich etc person in order to make other people notice you or admire you
attract : draw, allure, charm
authority : power
authorize : empower, allow, permit, let auxiliary1 adjective
1 auxiliary workers provide additional help for another group of workers, especially nurses or soldiers: an auxiliary nurse | auxiliary staff
2 an auxiliary motor, piece of equipment etc is kept ready to be used
- 32 -
if the main one stops working properly: an auxiliary power supply
: subsidiary, subordinate, additional
available : usable
avenge : revenge
avid adjective
avid reader/listener/fan etc someone who does something, listens to something etc as much as they can: an avid collector of old jazz records
: greedy, avarice /'{v@rKs/ noun [uncountable]
formal a desire to have a lot of money that is considered to be􀀆too strong; greed
avaricious adjective
avariciously adverb , desirous, acquisitive adjective formal
showing too much desire to get new possessions, covetous / adjective
having a very strong desire to have something that someone else has, especially wealth: They began to cast covetous eyes on their neighbours' fields. ?covetously adverb ?covetousness noun [uncountable]
avoid : shun verb [transitive]
to avoid someone or something deliberately: a shy woman who shunned publicity | Victims of the disease found themselves shunned by society.
, evade, escape, elude
aware : conscious
- 33 -
awe1 noun [uncountable]
1 a feeling of great respect and admiration for someone or something : with awe/in awe: Kate gazed at the mountains with awe. | fill sb with awe: The sight of so many jewels in one place filled them with awe.
2 be/stand in awe of sb to have great respect and admiration for and sometimes a slight fear of someone: Because of his reputation as a dancer we were all rather in awe of him. : wonder, amazement
awkward adjective
1 making you feel so embarrassed that you are not sure what to do or say: The more she tried to get out of the situation, the more awkward it became. | an awkward pause | make things awkward (=cause trouble and make a situation very difficult): She could make things very awkward if she wanted to.
2 not convenient: I'm sorry, have I called at an awkward time?
3 moving or behaving in a way that does not seem relaxed or comfortable, especially because you feel nervous or embarrassed: I felt a bit awkward on my first day there, but I soon settled in. | an awkward wave | an awkward teenager
4 difficult to use or handle: The camera has a lot of small buttons, which makes it rather awkward to use.
5 an awkward person is deliberately unhelpful
[+ about]: I wish you'd stop being so bloody awkward about everything. | an awkward customer (=someone who is difficult to deal with)
awkwardly adverb : are you the head tutor... ?she began awkwardly.
awkwardness noun [uncountable] : clumsy, unskillful
- 34 -
***** (B) *****
ban : forbid, inhibit, prohibit, enjoin verb [transitive] 1 formal to order someone to do something 2 AmE law to legally prevent someone from going near a person or place , outlaw, proscribe,disallow, interdict.􀀆banish verb [transitive] 1 to not allow someone or something to stay in a particular place : banish
sth from/to: The children were banished to the backyard.
2 to send someone away permanently from their country or the area where they live, especially as an official punishment : banish sb from/to: Many Soviet dissidents were banished to Siberia.
3 banish sb/sth (from your mind) to try to stop thinking about something;
especially something that worries you
banishment noun [uncountable]􀀆: expel, exile, deport
bar : hinder, obstruct verb [transitive]
1 to block a road, passage etc: A small aircraft now obstructed􀀆the runway.
| an accident obstructing northbound traffic | Our view was obstructed by a high wall.
2 to try to prevent someone from doing something by making it difficult
- 35 -
for them: A small minority obstructed policies that would help the majority of people. | obstructing a police officer in the course of his duty, deter, stop, impede
barbarian : savage, primitive, barbaric, barbarous
bare : naked, nude, exposed
bargain1 noun [countable]
1 something bought cheaply or for less than its usual price: I might buy a TV, if I can find a bargain in the sales. | be a bargain: These shoes are a bargain at $22. | bargain holiday/clothes/prices etc (=a holiday etc that is very cheap) | bargain hunting (=looking for things to buy at a cheap price): a bargain hunting housewife at the January sales
2 an agreement, made between two people or groups, to do something in return for something else : make a bargain: We've made a bargain that he'll do the shopping and I'll cook. | drive a hard bargain (=succeed in making an agreement that is very much to your advantage): Fischer was determined to drive a hard bargain. | keep your side of the bargain (=do what you promised as part of an agreement) | strike a bargain (=reach an agreement): Management and unions have struck a bargain over wage increases.
3 into the bargain especially BrE in addition to everything else: He was short, fat, and spotty into the bargain.
4 make the best of a bad bargain to do the best you can under difficult conditions
bargainer noun [countable]: a wage bargainer
see cheap1􀀆: contract, trade, sell
barren : sterile, infertile, unproductive
- 36 -
barrier : bar, obstruction, barricade, obstacle
barter : trade, exchange
base : mean, degraded
beam : shine, gleam1 verb [intransitive]
1 to shine softly: The spire of the Golden Temple gleamed in the autumn sun. [+ with]: the table's surface gleaming with wax polish
2 gleam with happiness/joy etc if your eyes or face gleam with a feeling, they show it: His face gleamed with amusement. gleaming adjective : gleaming glass skyscrapers, glitter, radiate
bear : carry, transport, convey
bearing : manner, behavior, conduct
becoming : attractive, comely adjective literary a comely woman has an attractive appearance comeliness noun [uncountable] , suitable, appropriate
beg : entreat verb [transitive] formal to ask someone to do something for you in a way that shows you are
very upset, crave verb [transitive] 1 to have an extremely strong desire for something, especially a drug: She's
an insecure child who craves attention.
2 formal to ask seriously for something: May I crave your pardon?
, implore / / verb [transitive] formal to ask for something in an emotional way; plead (1): John, I implore you,
- 37 -
stop now before it's too late. | implore sb to do sth: She implored the soldiers to save her child., beseech verb [transitive] literary past tense and past participle besought / or beseeched to eagerly and anxiously ask someone for something, petition, request
behave : conduct
bend : curve, crook1 noun [countable]
1 informal someone who is dishonest: I wouldn't buy a car from them -they're a bunch of crooks.
2 a long stick with a curved end, used by people who look after sheep
3 the crook of your arm the part of your arm where it bends, used for holding things: She cradled the little dog in the crook of her arm.
cradle1 noun [countable]
1 BED a small bed for a baby, especially one that you can move gently from side to side: She rocked the cradle to quieten the child.
2 the cradle of the place where something important began: Athens is often regarded as the cradle of democracy.
3 from/in the cradle from or in the earliest years of your life: Sara had learned that language from the cradle.
4 from the cradle to the grave all through your life: a promise􀀆of security from the cradle to the grave
5 BrE a structure that people working on the sides of high buildings stand in which can be moved up and down: a window-cleaner's cradle
- 38 -
6 the part of a telephone where the part that you hold in your hand is put when it is not being used see also cat's , rob the cradle rob (5), bow
beneficial : helpful, profitable, advantageous
benevolent adjective kind and generous: A benevolent uncle paid for her to have music lessons.
| a benevolent smile benevolence noun [uncountable] benevolently adverb : kind, humane, tender, generous
betray : be unfaithful to, be a traitor to noun [countable] someone who is not loyal to their country or friends: He was hanged as a traitor. | a traitor to the cause of women's rights
bewilder verb [transitive] to confuse someone􀀆: confuse, perplex, puzzle
bias1 noun
1 [uncountable singular] a tendency to consider one person, group, idea etc more favourably than others: a newspaper with a strong right-wing bias
[+ against/towards/in favour of]: There was a definite bias against commerce and science in the educational curriculum.
2 [singular] a natural skill or interest in one particular area: Lydia has a strong artistic bias.
3 on the bias in a diagonal direction * prejudice1 noun
1 [countable, uncountable] an unreasonable dislike and distrust􀀆of people who are different from you in some way, especially because
- 39 -
of their race, sex, religion etc: Women still have to face a great deal of prejudice in the workplace.
[+ against]: Prejudice against black people is common in many parts of America. | racial/sexual prejudice (=prejudice against people who belong to a different race or sex): victims of racial prejudice
2 [uncountable] to the prejudice of formal having a harmful effect or influence on something else: Harry continued to smoke, to the prejudice of his health.
3 without prejudice law without harming or affecting something else
bid1 noun [countable]
1 an offer to pay a particular price for something, especially at an auction1 [+ for]: They put in the highest bid for the house.
2 an offer to do work or provide services for a specific price [+ for]: rival bids for the cleaning contract
3 an attempt to achieve or obtain something
[+ for]: a bid for power | bid to do sth: a desperate bid to free herself from a loveless marriage
4 a statement of how many points you hope to win in a card game􀀆
: command, order, direct
bind : band, bond, tie, fasten
bite : gnaw, chew
bitter : harsh, acrid adjective
1 an acrid smell or taste, is strong and unpleasant and stings your nose
- 40 -
or throat: a cloud of acrid smoke
2 formal an acrid comment, discussion etc is very critical or angry , biting adjective 1 a biting wind is unpleasantly cold: A biting wind blew down from the hills. 2 a biting criticism, remark is cruel or unkind: biting sarcasm􀀆
bitingly adverb
blame : reproach, censure, condemn, disapprove blast1 noun 1 AIR/WIND [countable] a sudden strong movement of wind or air
[+ of]: A blast of cold air swept through the hut.
2 EXPLOSION [countable] an explosion, or the very strong movement of air that it causes: Thirty-six people died in the blast.
3 NOISE [countable] a sudden very loud noise: a blast of rock music | The guard gave a blast on his whistle and we were off.
4 (at) full blast as strongly, loudly, or fast as possible: The􀀆radiators were on full blast, but it was still freezing. | a radio going at full blast
5 FUN [singular] AmE informal an enjoyable and exciting experience: The
concert was a blast. | We had a blast at the fair. : explosion, outburst, burst blaze : flame
blemish : stain, defect, peck noun [countable] a very small mark, spot, or piece of something: The boat was soon just a
- 41 -
speck on the horizon.
blend : mingle, mix
blind : sightless
blink1 verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to shut and open your eyes quickly: I blinked
as I came out into the sunlight.
2 [intransitive] if lights blink, they shine unsteadily or go on and off rapidly: The light on your answering machine is blinking.
3 not (even) blink to not seem at all surprised: She didn't even blink when I told her how much it would cost.
4 before you could blink spoken extremely quickly
: wink, twinkle
block : obstacle, blocking, blockade
bloody : cruel, ruthless
blow : shock, calamity, disaster
blunt1 adjective
1 not sharp or pointed: All I could find was a blunt pencil.
pposite sharp1 (1), sharp1 (11) 2 speaking in an honest way even if this upsets people: Jan was􀀆
straightforward and blunt as always.
also bluntly
bluntness noun [uncountable] : dull (Ant) sharp
- 42 -
boast : brag, swagger1 verb [intransitive]
1 [always + adv/prep] to walk proudly, swinging your shoulders in a way that shows too much confidence
[+ down/in/out etc]: He swaggered down the street with a foolish grin on his face.
2 old-fashioned to talk or behave in a very proud way; boast1 (1) ?swaggerer noun [countable] ?swaggeringly adverb
bold : courageous, daring, valiant bond : union bondage noun [uncountable] 1 the practice of being tied up for sexual pleasure 2 literary the state of being a slave: Since the age of 13 he had been in
bondage. 3 the state of having your freedom limited, or being prevented from doing
what you want: He wanted to be free from the bondage of social conventions.􀀆: slavery, confinement boom* : flourish, thrive, prosper bore : weary, tire
bother : annoy, worry, trouble, harass, disturb bound : boundary, border, limit, precinct noun
- 43 -
1 [countable] AmE an area within a town or city that has its own police force, local government representatives etc: the 44th Precinct
2 [countable] AmE the main police station in a particular area of a town or city: Book him and take him down to the precinct.
3 [countable] shopping/pedestrian precinct BrE an area of a town where people can walk and cars are not allowed
4 precincts [plural] the area that surrounds an important building: the precincts of the cathedral
boundary : edge, bow : stoop, bend, yield, submit brain : intellect
brave : courageous, gallant, dauntless, bold bravery : boldness, courage, daring break : shatter, batter1 verb [intransitive always + adv/prep,
transitive] to keep hitting something hard, especially in a way that causes damage [+ at/on/against etc]: The waves battered against the shore.
?battering noun [countable, uncountable] , destroy breed : create, generate, raise, rear, nurture brief : short, transitory, transient, temporary bright : radiant, glowing, beaming, brilliant
- 44 -
brisk adjective 1 quick and full of energy: a brisk walk 2 quick, practical and showing that you want to get things done􀀆quickly:
She spoke in a brisk tone. 3 trade or business that is brisk is very busy, with a lot of products being sold 4 weather that is brisk is cold and clear ?briskly adverb
?briskness noun [uncountable] : active, lively, energetic
broad : wide, extensive, vast, spacious
brood1 verb [intransitive]
1 to keep thinking for a long time about something that you are􀀆worried,
angry, or upset about: After the argument Simon sat in his room, brooding.
[+ over/about/on]: There's no point brooding over it - she's gone.
2 if a bird broods, it sits on its eggs to make the young birds􀀆break out
: dwell on, ponder, meditate
brook : stream
brutal : savage, cruel, inhuman, ruthless, barbarous
brute1 noun [countable]
1 often humorous a man who is rough, cruel and not sensitive: Don't hit him, you brute!
2 literary an animal, especially a large or strong one
- 45 -
: beast, animal
burden : load burst : explode, blow up bury : entomb, hide
***** (C) *****
calamity :􀀆tragedy, disaster, catastrophe, cataclysm.
calculate : count, figure, reckon, compute
cancel : annul, revoke
candid adjective
directly truthful, even when the truth may be unpleasant or embarrassing: The Governor's brutally candid assessment struck a new blow to Mr Major's reputation.
also candour
candidly adverb
: frank, open, outspoken capacious : spacious, roomy capacity : 1. magnitude, dimensions 2. ability capital : principal, chief, prime, primary, major, leading, captivate : charm, enthralled adjective
- 46 -
so interested that you pay a lot of attention to what you are seeing or hearing: Richard listened, enthralled by the Captain's stories.
, enchant, fascinate captivity : bondage, confinement capture : seize, catch, snare1 noun [countable] 1 a trap for catching an animal, especially one that uses a wire or rope
to catch the animal by its foot 2 literary something that is intended to trick someone and get them into
a difficult situation
careful : cautious, watchful, vigilant, discreet adjective
1 done or said in a careful way so that you do not offend, upset, or embarrass people: It wasn't very discreet of you to ring me up at the office. | That morning I began making discreet inquiries.
2 careful not to talk about things that other people want to keep secret: Don't worry about my secretary hearing us; he's very discreet.
opposite indiscreet, compare discrete discreetly adverb , prudent careless : heedless, reckless, indiscreet cargo : freight, load, burden carriage : vehicle, conveyance carry : convey, transport, transfer
- 47 -
cast : throw, fling , hurl, pitch
casual adjective
1 NOT CARING not caring or seeming not to care about something:􀀆His casual manner annoyed me. | Karla tried to sound casual, but her excitement was obvious.
2 CLOTHES casual clothes are comfortable clothes that you wear in informal situations: casual shoes
3 casual worker/employment/labour etc a worker, employment etc that a company uses or offers only for a short period of time: They're making do with casual staff.
4 WITHOUT ATTENTION without any clear aim or serious interest: a casual glance at the Times | casual observer (=someone not looking very carefully): Even to the most casual observer it was obvious she was sick.
5 NOT PLANNED happening by chance without being planned: a casual meeting | casual remark (=something you say for no particular reason)
6 casual sex sex that you have without intending to have a serious relationship with the other person
7 casual visitor/user etc someone who does not often visit a place, use something etc: a casual user of the library service ?casually adverb : a casually dressed young man ?casualness noun [uncountable] : unexpected
catastrophe : disaster, mishap, calamity, misfortune
celebrate : observe, commemorate
- 48 -
celebrated : famous, renowned, well-known, distinguished celebrity : N. a famous person, hero, notable. celestial* : heavenly change : alter, turn, transform, vary character : feature, trait noun [countable]
formal a particular quality in someone's character: Anne's generosity is one of her most pleasing traits, characteristic
charge : load
generous : benign, kind
cheat : deceive, defraud, trick, delude verb [transitive]
to make someone believe something that is not true; deceive : delude sb/yourself: You're deluding yourself if you think you'll change Rob's mind. | delude sb into doing sth: That new job title is just a way of deluding her into thinking she's been promoted.
check : study, examination, inspection cheer : inspirit, animate, encourage cheerful : gay, joyful, buoyant, jolly herish verb [transitive usually passive] 1 to love someone or something very much and take care of them well: his
most cherished possession 2 to be very important to someone : cherished hopes/dreams/ideas etc: one
- 49 -
of our cherished hopes, a community centre for the village | cherished memories􀀆: treasure
chill : cold, coldness
chop : cut, mince
chronic : habitual, confirmed
civil : polite, courteous adjective having good manners and respect for other people: The staff are always courteous and helpful. | I received a courteous reply from the manager. 뾬pposite discourteous ?courteously adverb
?courteousness noun [uncountable] , civilized claim : demand, request, requirement clash : collide clasp : grasp, grip, clutch clean : unstained, clear, pure cleanse : clean, purify clear : distinct, evident, plain, obvious, apparent, manifest clever : smart, intelligent, ingenious climb : mount, ascend, scale clumsy : awkward
- 50 -
coarse adjective
1 having a rough surface that feels slightly hard: Hannah's skin was coarse from years of working outdoors.
2 consisting of threads or parts that are thicker or larger than usual: The coarse sand was hot and rough under her feet.
3 talking in a rude and offensive way, especially about sex: coarse jokes coarsely adverb coarseness noun [uncountable] : crude, rude, rough
coax : cajole verb [intransitive, transitive]
to gradually persuade someone to do something by being nice, etc : cajole sb into doing sth: Can't you cajole her into coming?, persuade
cohere : stick, cling, adhere, bond, cleave.
cohesion cohesive adjective􀀆noun [uncountable]
1 if there is cohesion among a group of people, a set of ideas etc, all the parts or members of it are connected or related in a reasonable way to form a whole: Religious beliefs can provide cohesion in diverse societies.
2 a close relationship, based on grammar or meaning, between two parts of
a sentence or a larger piece of writing cohesively adjective cohesiveness noun [uncountable] * : bond, adhesion noun
1 [uncountable] the state of one thing sticking to another
2 [countable] technical a piece of tissue (=flesh) that has grown around a small injury or diseased area
- 51 -
collect : assemble, amass, accumulate, aggregate column : pillar combat : struggle, fight, battle combination : conjunction, association, union combine : unite, join, associate, incorporate comfort : soothe, console1 verb [transitive]
to make someone feel better when they are feeling sad or disappointed: No one could console her when Peter died. | console sb with: Console yourself with the thought that no one was injured!
, solace1 noun
1 [uncountable] formal a feeling of emotional comfort at a time􀀆of great sadness or disappointment : seek/find solace in: After the death of her son, Val found solace in the church.
2 be a solace to to bring a feeling of comfort and calmness to someone, when they are sad or disappointed: Mary was a great solace to me after Arthur died.
command : order, bid1 noun [countable]
1 an offer to pay a particular price for something, especially at an auction1 [+ for]: They put in the highest bid for the house.
2 an offer to do work or provide services for a specific price [+ for]: rival bids for the cleaning contract
3 an attempt to achieve or obtain something
[+ for]: a bid for power | bid to do sth: a desperate bid to free herself from a loveless marriage
- 52 -
4 a statement of how many points you hope to win in a card game􀀆
****auction1 /'O:kSFn ? ?k ? noun [countable]
a public meeting where land, buildings, paintings etc are sold to the person who offers the most money for them : put sth up for auction (=try to sell something at an auction): The house was put up for auction. | auction house (=a company that arranges auctions)􀀆
, instruct
commence verb [intransitive, transitive]
formal to begin or to start something
[+ with]: A trial commences with opening statements. | commence􀀆sth: Your first evaluation will be six months after you commence employment. | commence doing sth: You may commence reading, Jeremy. : begin, start, originate
commend verb [transitive] formal
1 to praise or approve of someone or something, especially publicly : commend sb for sth: A Chester man was commended for his public-spirited action. | highly commended: Bartholomew's work has been highly commended.
2 to tell someone that something is good or deserves attention;􀀆recommend: I commend this bill to the House. | not have much to commend it (=not be satisfactory): The hotel doesn't have much to commend it.
3 old use to give someone to someone else to take care of : entrust, intrust verb [transitive]
to make someone responsible for doing something important : entrust sb with sth: I was entrusted with the task of looking after the money. | entrust sth to sb: The infant Prince was entrusted to an English nurse, Miss Shaw.
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, laud, praise, exalt, applaud
communicate : transmit, convey
compact : tightly, packed
companion : associate, partner, fellow, mate
company : companionship, society
comparable : similar,􀀆equivalent, like,􀀆uniform, analogous adjective formal
similar to another situation or thing so that a comparison can be made
[+ to/with]: Scharf's findings are analagous with our own., alike
compassion : pity, sympathy, mercy
compel : force, impel verb [transitive]
an idea, emotion etc that impels you to do something makes you feel very strongly that you must do it : impel sb to do sth: Donnelly felt impelled to write and complain.
compensate : atone verb [intransitive]
formal to do something to show that you are sorry for having done something wrong
[+ for]: Richard was anxious to atone for his thoughtlessness.
compete : contend, vie, rival
competent adjective
1 having enough skill or knowledge to do something to a satisfactory standard: She's a highly competent linguist. | competent to do sth: I don't feel competent to give an opinion at the moment.
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2 a piece of work, performance etc that is competent is satisfactory but not especially good: The workmen did a competent job.
3 [not before noun] having the legal power to deal with something in a court of law : be competent to do sth: This court is not competent to hear your case.
competently adverb : qualified, capable, proficient adjective able to do something well or skilfully [+ in/at]: Martha's proficient in Swedish. | a proficient typist proficiently adverb
complain : grumble complex : compound, complicated comply : acquiesce verb [intransitive]
formal to unwillingly agree to do what someone wants, or to let them do what they want, without arguing or complaining
[+ in/to]: The book accuses him of silently acquiescing in the Nazis' persecution of the Jews., conform, consent, accede
component* : element, ingredient
composed : calm, tranquil
comprehend : understand, grasp, discern verb [transitive not in progressive] formal
to see, notice, or understand something only after looking at it or thinking about it carefully; perceive (2): In the distance I could just discern the hills near Tendaho. | discern who/what/how etc: It was difficult to discern which of them was telling the truth.
discernible adjective : There is still no discernible improvement in the economic situation.
discernibly adverb , perceive
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comprehensive : inclusive, broad, extensive, sweeping
compress : condense, squeeze
compulsory adjective
something that is compulsory must be done because it is the law􀀆or because someone in authority orders you to; obligatory: In Britain, education is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16. | compulsory lay-offs ?compulsorily adverb 뾠ompare voluntary1 (4)􀀆: compelled, binding
conceal : hide, bury
conceit noun
1 [uncountable] an attitude that shows you have too high an opinion of your own abilities or importance; conceitedness: The conceit of the woman - it's unbelievable!
2 [countable] technical an unusual, cleverly expressed comparison of two very different things, especially in poetry􀀆:
vanity noun [uncountable]
1 too much pride in yourself, so that you are always thinking about yourself and your appearance
2 the vanity of sth literary the lack of importance of something compared to other things that are much more important: The poem warns of the vanity of mental ambition., complacency noun [uncountable]
a feeling of satisfaction with what you have achieved which makes you stop trying to improve or change things: There are no grounds for complacency in today's competitive environment.
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(Ant) humility, modesty􀀆
conceive : understand, apprehend, comprehend concentrate : focus, intensify conciseness : brevity noun [uncountable] 1 the quality of expressing something in very few words 2 shortness of time: In the interests of brevity I will summarize my views.
condemn : blame, censure condense : compress, concentrate condition : state, situation, circumstance conduct : behavior, demeanor, manner, bearing confer : bestow, give, donate, grant conference : meeting, convention confess : acknowledge, avow, own, admit, concede confidence : trust, belief, faith, reliance confident : certain, convinced confine : enclose, imprison confirm : assure conflict : collide, clash, contend, fight, combat
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conform : comply, yield, agree, assent1 noun [uncountable]
formal approval or agreement from someone who has authority: a nod of assent | the Royal assent (=act of officially signing a new law by the British King or Queen)
confuse : disturb, confound, perplex, bewilder verb [transitive] to confuse someone
congress : meeting, assembly, conference
conquer : defeat, master, beat (Ant) surrender, submit conscientious adjective showing a lot of care and attention: a conscientious and methodical worker-conscientiously adverb conscientiousness noun [uncountable]: praised for her conscientiousness
: just, upright, honest
conscious : aware
consequence : effect, result, outcome
consider : contemplate, meditate, reflect, ponder considerate : thoughtful, charitable
consistent : compatible1 adjective
1 technical compatible machines, methods, ideas etc can exist together or be used together without causing problems: The new software is IBM compatible. (=can be used with IBM computers)
[+ with]: The project is not compatible with the company's long-term aims.
2 two people that are compatible are able to have a good relationship
, harmonious
console : comfort, solace, soothe
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consort1 noun [countable]
1 in consort (with sb) formal doing something together with someone: The prince ruled in consort with his father.
2 the wife or husband of a ruler 뾱ee also prince 쟠onsort
3 a group of people who play music from former times or the group of old-fashioned instruments they use
* : associate, fraternize also -ise BrE verb [intransitive] to show friendliness towards people who you are not supposed to􀀆be friendly with [+ with]: The soldiers fraternized with the enemy on Christmas Day. fraternization noun [uncountable] , agree
conspicuous* : prominent, manifest, plain, apparent constant : invariable, uniform, stable, unchanging
constrain / / verb [transitive]
1 to stop someone from doing what they want to do : constrain by: Many women feel constrained by their roles as wife and mother.
2 to prevent something from developing and improving: Our research has been constrained by lack of funding.
: compel, coerce verb [transitive] to force someone to do something they do not want to do by threatening them :
coerce sb into doing sth: The rebels coerced the villagers
into hiding them from the army.
constrict : compress, contract1 noun [countable]
1 a formal written agreement between two or more people, which says what
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each person must do for the other: His contract of employment specifies that he must get at least one month's training.
[+ with]: Tyler has just agreed a seven year contract with a Hollywood studio. | sign a contract: Read the contract carefully before you sign it. | enter into a contract: They have just entered into a lucrative contract with a clothing store. | be on a contract/be under contract (=be working for someone with whom you have a contract) | be in breach of contract (=have done something that is not allowed by the contract): If they don't get the test version of the software to us by tomorrow they'll be in breach of contract.
2 subject to contract if an agreement is subject to contract, it has not yet been agreed formally by a contract: We've agreed to their offer on our house, subject to contract.
3 informal an agreement to kill a person for money: There is a contract out on him and he's in hiding.consult verb [intransitive, transitive]
1 to ask for information or advice from someone because it is their job to know about it: If symptoms persist, consult a doctor without delay. | consult sb about sth: An increasing number of clients are consulting them about Social Security changes.
2 to ask for someone's permission or to discuss something with someone so that you can make a decision together: I can't believe you sold the car without consulting me!
[+ with]: The President consulted with European leaders before taking action.
3 to look for information in a book, map, list etc: Have you consulted a dictionary?􀀆: confer
consume : expend, exhaust
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contagious adjective
1 a disease that is contagious can be passed from person to person by touch
2 a person who is contagious has a disease that can be passed to another person by touch: The patient is still highly contagious.
3 if a feeling, attitude, or action is contagious, other people quickly begin to feel it, believe it, do it etc: Her enthusiasm was contagious
?contagiousness noun [uncountable]
?contagiously adverb : communicable, infectious contain : hold, accommodate, include contaminate verb [transitive]
1 to make a place or substance dirty and dangerous by adding something to it, for example chemicals or poison: fears that dumped waste might contaminate water supplies
2 to influence something in a way that has a bad effect ?contamination /k@n"t{mK'neISFn/ noun [uncountable]
: pollute, stain, corrupt
contemplate : consider, reflect, ponder, meditate
contemporary : coexisting
contempt : scorn, disdain
contemptible adjective so unacceptable that you have no respect for the person involved: They were portrayed as contemptible cowards. ?contemptibly adverb
: mean, abject, base
contemptuous adjective
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1 showing that you feel that someone or something is not important and deserves no respect: Cordelia threw him a contemptuous look. | be contemptuous of: He was openly contemptuous of his elder brother.
2 not feeling any fear in a dangerous situation: Contemptuous of the risks, she ran into the burning building. ?contemptuously adverb : scornful, sneering
contend : struggle, strive, fight, battle, combat, compete content : satisfied, contented contest : struggle, conflict, battle, combat, fight continual : incessant, ceaseless contract : compact, bargain1 noun [countable]
1 something bought cheaply or for less than its usual price: I might buy a TV, if I can find a bargain in the sales. | be a bargain: These shoes are a bargain at $22. | bargain holiday/clothes/prices etc (=a holiday etc that is very cheap) | bargain hunting (=looking for things to buy at a cheap price): a bargain hunting housewife at the January sales
2 an agreement, made between two people or groups, to do something in return for something else : make a bargain: We've made a bargain that he'll do the shopping and I'll cook. | drive a hard bargain (=succeed in making an agreement that is very much to your advantage): Fischer was determined to drive a hard bargain. | keep your side of the bargain (=do what you promised as part of an agreement) | strike a bargain (=reach an agreement): Management and unions have struck a bargain over wage increases.
3 into the bargain especially BrE in addition to everything else: He was short, fat, and spotty into the bargain.
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4 make the best of a bad bargain to do the best you can under difficult conditions
bargainer noun [countable]: a wage bargainer
cheap1
contradictory : opposing, paradoxical, inconsistent, contrary1 noun formal
1 on the contrary used for showing that you disagree completely􀀆with what has just been said: It wasn't a good thing; on the contrary it was a huge mistake.
2 to the contrary showing that the opposite is true: Unless there is evidence to the contrary, we ought to believe them.
3 the contrary the opposite of what has been said or suggested:􀀆They say he is guilty, but I believe the contrary.
contrast1 noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a difference between people, ideas, or things etc that are compared
[+ between]: The contrast between the two sisters surprised him.
2 in contrast/by contrast used when you are comparing objects or situations and saying that they are completely different from each other: Their old house had been large and spacious; by contrast the new London flat seemed cramped and dark. | in contrast to: Mary was short and plump, in contrast to her mother who was tall and willowy. | in sharp/marked/stark etc contrast to: The foreign visitors were wealthy and glamorous, in complete contrast to the poverty-stricken locals.
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3 [countable] something that is very different from something else [+ to]: The blue skies of the holiday brochure were such a contrast to this dreary rain-sodden March day.
4 [uncountable] the differences in colour, or between light and􀀆dark, used in paintings or photographs for artistic effect: The artist has used contrast marvelously in his paintings.
5 [uncountable] the degree of difference between the light and dark parts of a television picture: Can you adjust the contrast please?
: comparison contrive : devise, invent, design control : dominate, govern, rule, reign controversy / noun [countable, uncountable] a serious argument or disagreement, especially about something such as a plan or decision, that continues for a long time: The proposals􀀆to reduce the strength of the army have been the subject of much controversy. | a political controversy [+ over/about/surrounding]: the controversy surrounding the nuclear energy
program􀀆: dispute, debate convenient : handy converse : opposite, reverse convert : change, transform convey : carry, transport, transmit convince : persuade core* : center, heart corpse : body correct : amend, remedy, cure correspond : conform, accord, match corrupt : rotten, spoiled count : matter, weigh, signify courteous : civil, polite, well-mannered cowardly : craven, afraid, timid crack : break, snap, split
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craft : skill, ingenuity crash : 1. shatter, smash crazy : insane, lunatic, mad credit : belief, trust, confidence, faith, reliance creditable : reputable, honorable
credulous adjective always believing what you are told, and therefore easily deceived: This
man has coaxed millions of pounds from a credulous public. credulously adverb credulousness noun [uncountable]
: gullible adjective
too ready to believe what other people tell you, so that you are easily deceived: Plastic replicas were sold to gullible tourists as ancient relics.
?gullibly adverb ?gullibility /"g ?K'bIlKti/ noun [uncountable]
crime : offense, sin, felony criminal : convict, sinner,
1 the person who is guilty of a crime, or responsible for damage, a problem etc: Police finally managed to catch the culprit.
2 informal the reason for a particular problem or difficulty : the main
culprit: High production costs are the main culprit. , offender cripple1 /'krIpFl/ noun [countable]
1 an offensive word for someone who is physically unable to use􀀆their arms or their legs properly
2 emotional cripple informal someone who is not able to deal with their own or other people's feelings 뾠ompare disabled􀀆: disable, maim verb [transitive] to wound or injure someone very seriously and often permanently: landmines
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that kill or maim people in the rural areas | maimed for life: Rod was maimed for life in a car smash., ruin crisis : emergency critic : reviewer, judge critical : crucial, momentous adjective
a momentous event, occasion, decision etc is very important or serious, especially because it will have a great influence on the future: a momentous decision | 1789 was a momentous year in European history., important, dangerous, perilous, hazardous
crop : harvest, produce, yield crowd : throng, multitude, swarm, herd crucial adjective
1 something that is crucial is extremely important because everything else depends on it: crucial decisions involving millions of dollars
2 slang excellent ?crucially adverb
1. decisive, conclusive, determinative, deciding. 2. critical, desperate adjective 1 willing to do anything and not caring about danger, because you are in a very bad situation: We had no food left at all and were getting desperate. | an appeal from the teenager's desperate parents
2 [not before noun] needing or wanting something very much
[+ for]: By then I was desperate for a holiday. | desperate to do sth: Ben was desperate to get a job. | in desperate need: We're in desperate need of help.
3 a desperate situation is very bad or serious: There was a desperate shortage of doctors.
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4 a desperate action is something that you only do because you are in a very bad situation : desperate attempt/effort/measures: The victim had made a desperate attempt to escape, acute􀀆
crude : unrefined, raw cruel : barbarous, ferocious adjective
1 violent, dangerous, and frightening: The battle was long and ferocious. | ferocious dogs
2 very strong, severe, and unpleasant: a ferocious headache | The heat was
ferocious. ferociously adverb ferociousness noun [uncountable]􀀆
crush : shatter, smash, crumble verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] also crumble away to break apart into little pieces, or make something do this: Billy crumbled the bread in his fingers.
2 [intransitive] if a building crumbles, it is old and starting to fall down: Britain's crumbling schools
3 [intransitive] also crumble away if your determination, courage etc crumbles, it becomes weak or fails: Brigg's resolve crumbled and he reached for the whisky bottle.
4 [intransitive] if a military operation, government etc crumbles, it loses its power and its effectiveness: a crumbling empire
cumbersome adjective
1 a process or system that is cumbersome is slow and difficult:􀀆The technique was cumbersome and created problems with sound
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reproduction.
2 heavy and difficult to move: cumbersome equipment that slowed us down considerably
3 words or phrases that are cumbersome are long or complicated
: awkward, bulky adjective
1 something that is bulky is bigger than other things of its type and is difficult to carry or store: a bulky parcel | a new elastic that is less bulky
2 someone who is bulky is big and heavy ?bulkiness noun [uncountable] , clumsy, inconvenient cunning : tricky, sly adjective
1 very clever in the way that you use tricks and dishonesty to get what you want: The way he did it was really sly.
2 sly smile/glance/wink etc a smile, look etc shows that you are hiding something you know from other people: She gave me a sly look.
3 on the sly informal secretly, especially when you are doing something that you should not do: They'd been seeing each other on the sly for months.
slyly adverb slyness noun [uncountable]
cure : remedy curious : inquisitive adjective
1 asking too many questions and trying to find out too many details about something or someone: Don't be so inquisitive -it makes
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people uncomfortable.
2 interested in a lot of different things and wanting to find out more about
them: a cheerful, inquisitive little boy ?inquisitively adverb : He peeped inquisitively into the drawer. ?inquisitiveness noun [uncountable], interested
current : prevailing, prevalent, common, popular curse : damn, imprecation noun [countable] formal an offensive word or phrase that you say when you are very angry; a curse2
(2) , anathema noun [singular, uncountable] something that is completely the opposite of what you believe in [+ to]: The idea of full-blown majority rule was anathema to many
Afrikaners.
, scourge
custody : imprisonment, confinement customary* : habitual, accustomed, conventional cut : divide, sever, chop
cynical : sarcastic adjective
saying things that are the opposite of what you mean in order to make an unkind joke or to show that you are annoyed: a sarcastic remark
sarcastically / adverb , satirical, sneering
***** (D) *****
damage : injury, harm, hurt, impaired adjective
not as good as before or not as good as it should be: A special􀀆device for viewers with impaired hearing. | TV reception may be impaired in some areas.
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damp : moist, humid, wet danger : hazard, risk, peril, jeopardy dare : venture, risk, challenge, defy verb defied, defying [transitive]
1 to refuse to obey a law or rule, or refuse to do what someone􀀆in authority tells you to do: He defied his father's wishes and married Agnes.
2 defy description/analysis/imagination etc to be so extreme or unusual that it is almost impossible to describe or understand: The beauty of the scene defies description.
3 I defy you (to) spoken formal used when asking someone to do something that you think is impossible, in order to prove that you are right: I defy you to think of one way in which this government has helped the poor.
daring : courageous, bold, brave, audacious, dauntless,valiant
adjective
very brave, especially in a difficult situation: a valiant attempt to break the world record, gallant
dash : rush, dart1 verb
1 [intransitive always + adv/prep] to move suddenly and quickly in a particular direction
[+ forward/across/off etc]: Jill darted forward and pulled him away from the fire.
2 dart a glance/look to look at someone or something very quickly and suddenly: Tom darted a terrified glance over his shoulder.
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, bolt1 noun [countable] 1 LOCK a metal bar that you slide across a door or window to fasten it 2 SCREW a screw with a flat head and no point, for fastening two pieces
of metal together 3 a bolt from out of the blue news that is sudden and unexpected: It was a bolt out of the blue when Alan resigned - completely unexpected. 4 bolt of lightning lightning that appears as a white line in the sky
뾱ee also thunderbolt 5 make a bolt for (it) to suddenly try to escape from somewhere􀀆6 WEAPON a short heavy arrow (1) that is fired from a crossbow (1) 7 CLOTH a large long roll of cloth
also shoot your bolt shoot1 (20), the nuts and bolts of nut1 (6)
dawn : daybreak dead : deceased, extinct, inanimate deadly : fatal, lethal, mortal1 adjective
1 not living for ever: Her father's death reminded her that she􀀆was mortal. | mortal creatures 뾬pposite immortal (1)
2 mortal blow/injuries/danger etc causing death or likely to cause death: He was dealt a mortal blow in the battle. | mortal combat (=fighting until one person kills the other): two gladiators locked in mortal combat
Compare lethal (1)
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3 mortal enemy/foe an enemy that you hate very much and always will hate
4 mortal fear/terror/dread extreme fear: She lives in mortal fear of her husband's anger.
5 [only before noun] old-fashioned used to emphasize the word that follows it, especially to show that you are annoyed: Now I've lost every mortal thing I owned.
6 poetic belonging to a human: a sight as yet unseen by mortal eyes also mortally
debate : discussion, argument, controversy, dispute
decadence noun [uncountable]
the state of having low moral standards and being more concerned with pleasure than with serious matters: the corruption and decadence of the nobility􀀆: deteriorate verb [intransitive]
1 to become worse: deteriorating health | Relations between the two countries have since deteriorated.
2 [+ into] to develop into a bad or unpleasant situation: The meeting soon
deteriorated into a fight. deterioration noun [uncountable] , decline decay : deteriorate, decline deceit : fraud noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a method of illegally getting money from someone, often by using clever and complicated methods: financial losses due to theft or fraud | tax/share/bankruptcy etc fraud (=fraud in a particular financial area)
2 [countable] someone who deceives people to gain money, friendship etc:
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She realized later that the insurance salesman had been a fraud.
, deception, cheating
deceive : delude verb [transitive]
to make someone believe something that is not true; deceive : delude sb/yourself: You're deluding yourself if you think you'll change Rob's mind. | delude sb into doing sth: That new job title is just a way of deluding her into thinking she's been promoted., cheat
decent : right, proper, nice, pure, modest decided : resolute adjective doing something in a very determined way because you have very strong
beliefs, aims etc 뾬pposite irresolute
resolutely adverb : She resolutely resisted his amorous //adjective involving or expressing sexual love: She resisted his amorous advances. amorously adverb amorousness noun [uncountable] //resoluteness noun
, determined, final declare : announce, proclaim decline : 1. refuse, reject
2. weaken, deteriorate, degenerate1 verb [intransitive] to become worse [+ into]: The debate soon degenerated into petty squabbling. degeneration noun [uncountable] , decay decrease : diminish, lessen, dwindle verb [intransitive]
also dwindle away to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller: The workforce has dwindled since its pre-war heyday. | dwindle (away) to nothing/one/two etc: Their supply of food had dwindled to almost nothing.
dwindling adjective : a dwindling population, abate defeat : conquer, overwhelm, subdue defect : blemish, flaw, fault, shortcoming, weakness
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defend : guard, shield, shelter, protect definite : fixed, clear, defy : challenge
dejected adjective unhappy, disappointed, or sad dejectedly adverb dejection noun [uncountable] : depressed, discouraged
deliberate1 adjective
1 intended or planned, and not happening accidentally: a deliberate act of disobedience
2 deliberate speech, thought, or movement is slow and careful: He began working in his usual deliberate and meticulous manner.
deliberateness noun [uncountable] : careful, thoughtful, cautious
delicate : dainty1 adjective daintier, daintiest
1 small, pretty, and delicate: a dainty white handkerchief
2 dainty movements are small and careful ?daintily adverb ?daintiness noun [uncountable] , graceful, elegant
delicacy : dainty, savory noun
1 [uncountable] a plant used in cooking to add taste to meat, beans etc
2 [countable] the American spelling of savoury
deliver : rescue, save deny : gainsay, contradict depart : start, leave, quit verb past tense and past participle quit
also quitted BrE present participle quitting
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1 [intransitive, transitive] informal, especially AmE to leave a job, school etc, especially because you are annoyed or unhappy: I'm tired of being treated like this. I quit. | Her husband had to quit because of ill health. | quit school/your job etc: She quit school at 17 and left home.
2 [transitive] informal especially AmE to stop doing something bad or annoying: Quit it Robby, or I'll tell mom! | quit doing sth: I wish you'd all quit complaining.
3 be quit of formal to be finished with something that was causing you problems
4 [transitive] old use to leave a place
depict : represent, portray deplore : grieve, regret, lament, mourn deposit : save, store, entrust, intrust verb [transitive]
to make someone responsible for doing something important : entrust sb with sth: I was entrusted with the task of looking after the money. | entrust sth to sb: The infant Prince was entrusted to an English nurse, Miss Shaw.
depressed* : downcast, melancholy1 adjective sad or making you feel sad: a melancholy expression | the seagulls' melancholy cry, gloomy
deprive : bereaved adjective formal
1 having lost a close friend or relative because they have recently died: a bereaved mother
2 the bereaved the person or people whose close friend or relative has just died: Our sympathies go to the bereaved., strip
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descent : falling, descending (Ant) ascent desert : abandon, forsake design : plan, devise, project, contrive
desolate1 adjective
1 a place that is desolate is empty and looks sad because there􀀆are no people there and not much activity: desolate moorland
2 someone who is desolate feels very sad and lonely desolately adverb desolation noun [uncountable]􀀆
: barren, ravage verb [transitive often passive] to destroy, ruin, or damage something very badly; devastate (1)􀀆:􀀆be ravaged by sth: The population was ravaged by cholera.
despair : discouragement, disheartenment desperate : hopeless, desolate, extreme, excessive destiny noun
1 [countable usually singular] the things that will happen to someone in the future, especially those that cannot be changed or controlled; fate (1) : your/my/his etc destiny: Juan accepted his destiny without complaint.
2 [uncountable] the power that some people believe decides what􀀆will happen to them in the future: I'm a great believer in destiny.
: fate, doom
destitute : poor, devoid destroy : smash, demolish detain : confine, arrest, keep detect* : spot, discern verb [transitive not in progressive] formal to see, notice, or understand something only after looking at it or thinking
about it carefully; perceive (2): In the distance I could just discern the hills near Tendaho. | discern
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who/what/how etc: It was difficult to discern which of
them was telling the truth.
discernible adjective : There is still no discernible improvement in the economic situation.
discernibly adverb , discover
deviate1 verb [intransitive] formal
to change what you are doing so that you are not following an expected plan, idea, or type of behaviour
[+ from]: The plane had to deviate from its normal flight path.􀀆
: diverge, wander, stray device : plan, scheme, project, design devise : contrive, invent, design devout : pious, devoted, saintly dictate* : fix, impose verb
1 impose a ban/tax/fine etc (on) to officially order that something should be forbidden, restricted, taxed etc, or that someone should be punished: The government imposed a ban on the sale of ivory. | We have decided to impose sanctions on countries that break the agreement.
2 impose a burden/strain etc (on/upon) to have a bad effect on something or someone by causing them problems: The President's health care proposals would not impose any great burden on the state's finances.
3 [transitive] to force someone to have the same ideas or beliefs as you : impose sth on sb: parents who impose their own moral values on their children
4 [intransitive] to unreasonably expect or ask someone to do something for you when this is inconvenient for them [+ on/upon]: We could ask them to let us stay the night, but I don't want
to impose on them.
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, prescribe, ordain verb [transitive]
1 to officially make someone a priest or religious leader: Desmond Tutu was ordained in 1960. | ordain sb (as) sth: Paulson was ordained deacon.
also ordination
2 formal to order that something should happen: a duty ordained by God [+ that]: The King ordained that a feast should be prepared. , decree1 noun [countable]
1 an official command or decision, especially one made by the ruler of a􀀆country: On 13 November the Emperor issued the decree.
2 a judgment in a court of law
die : decease, perish, vanish
diffuse1 verb [intransitive, transitive] formal
1 to make heat, a gas etc spread so that it mixes with the surrounding air or water: The kitchen stove diffused its warmth all over the house.
2 to spread ideas, information etc among a lot of people: Their ideas diffused quickly across Europe.
diffusion noun [uncountable]
: spread, distribute, scatter, disperse digest : absorb, imbibe verb [intransitive, transitive] formal or humorous
1 to drink something, especially alcohol: Having imbibed rather􀀆too freely, he fell forward against the table.
2 to accept and be influenced by qualities, ideas, values etc: imbibing
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radical political ideas, assimilate verb
1 [transitive] to think about new ideas, information etc so that you feel ready to use them: It will take time to assimilate all these facts.
2 [intransitive, transitive] if people assimilate or are assimilated into a country or group, they become part of it and are accepted by other people in it
[+ into]: women being assimilated into the workforce
3 [transitive] technical if you assimilate food, you take it into your mouth and digest1 (1) it
dilemma : predicament noun [countable]
a difficult or unpleasant situation in which you do not know what to do, or you have to make a difficult choice: There is no painless way out of America's current economic predicament.
, strait1 noun [countable]
1 also straits [plural] a narrow passage of water between two areas of land, usually connecting two seas: the Strait of Gibraltar
2 be in dire straits to be in a difficult situation, especially􀀆a financial one, that could have very bad or dangerous results: If one of the family is in dire straits, we try to help each other out.
dim : obscure, faint diminish : lessen, reduce, decrease, shrink, abate dirty : foul, unclean, filthy1 adjective filthier, filthiest
1 extremely dirty: Simon never cleans his house -it's absolutely filthy! 2 showing or describing sexual acts in a very rude or offensive􀀆way: Mitch
- 79 -
was just telling us a filthy joke when Kia walked in.
filthily adverb
filthiness noun [uncountable]
disadvantage : harm, damage, injury
disappear : vanish, fade
disappoint : frustrate, baffle1 verb [transitive]
if something baffles someone, they cannot understand or explain􀀆it at all: The question baffled me completely.
bafflement noun [uncountable]
baffling adjective : a baffling mystery
disaster : calamity, mishap, catastrophe, adversity noun [uncountable]
a situation in which you have a lot of problems that seem to be􀀆caused by bad luck: to keep the family together in times of adversity
discern : perceive, notice, discriminate, distinguish discernible* : noticeable, detectable, observable, perceptible,perceivable disciple : pupil, student, scholar discipline : training, drill, exercise, practice disclose : reveal, divulge, unveil
disconcert verb [transitive often passive]
to make someone feel slightly confused or worried: It was that cold, steady gaze of his that disconcerted her most.
: disturb, bewilder, perplex, embarrass
discourage : dishearten, dispirit, depress discreet : judicious, prudent, cautious, heedful, considerate disdain : condemn, despise verb [transitive not in progressive] to dislike someone or something very much: Mrs Morel had come to despise
her husband., scorn
disgrace : shame, dishonor
disgust : sicken, nauseate
disgusting : offensive, sickening, nauseous, nauseating
- 80 -
dishonorable : disgraceful, shameful disinterested : unbiased, impartial, fair disloyal : unfaithful dismiss : discharge, fire, refuse, reject, decline, disorder : mess, confusion, chaos disperse : scatter, dissipate, diffuse displace : replace, remove dispute : argue, debate disregard : ignore, neglect, overlook dissent1 noun
1 [uncountable] refusal to accept an official opinion or an opinion that most people accept: political dissent
2 [countable] AmE a judge's written statement giving their reasons for disagreeing with the other judges in a law case
3 [uncountable] old use a disagreement with accepted religious beliefs, especially one that makes someone leave an established church
also consent1, assent1􀀆: differ, disagree dissolve : melt distinct : definite, clear, plain distinction : difference distinguish : discriminate, differentiate distinguished : marked, noted, eminent, famous, celebrated,renowned
distress1 noun [uncountable]
1 EXTREME WORRY a feeling of extreme worry and unhappiness: Luke's destructive behaviour caused his parents great distress. | in distress: The girl was crying and clearly in distress.
2 PAIN formal great physical pain
3 LACK OF MONEY/FOOD a situation in which you suffer or have great problems
- 81 -
because you have no money, food etc : in distress: charities that aid families in distress | acute financial distress
4 distress signal a message sent from a ship, aircraft etc asking for help
5 be in distress if a ship, aircraft etc is in distress, it is in danger of sinking or crashing􀀆: pain, anxiety, agony, anguish
distribute : deal, allot, apportion, assign, dispense verb [transitive]
1 formal to give something to people, especially in fixed amounts: Villagers dispensed tea to people involved in the accident.
2 to prepare and give medicines to people
3 to officially provide something for people in a society : dispense justice/punishments (=decide whether or not someone is guilty of a crime and what punishment they should receive)
dispense with sb/sth phrasal verb [transitive] formal
to not use or do something that you usually use or do, because it is no longer necessary : can dispense with: I think we can dispense with a translator. | dispense with the formalities (=not use very polite behaviour, such as introducing people to each other)
disturbance : agitation noun
1 [uncountable] feeling of being so anxious, nervous, or upset that you cannot think calmly: Perry's agitation was so great he could hardly speak.
- 82 -
2 [countable, uncountable] a public argument or action for social or political change
[+ for/against]: agitation for civil rights
3 [uncountable] the act of shaking or mixing a liquid
, disorder, confusion, uproar
diverse : various, manifold
doctrine : tenet noun [countable]
a principle or belief, especially one that is part of a larger system of beliefs: the tenets of Buddhism, dogma, theory, principle􀀆
domain : area, field, territory, province, realm, arena dominant : ruling, prevailing, prevalent donation : gift, contribution, offering
doom1 verb [transitive usually passive]
to make someone or something certain to fail, die, be destroyed􀀆etc : doom sth to sth: The species is doomed to extinction. | doom sb/sth to do sth: Marx's theory was that capitalist economies are eventually doomed to collapse. | doomed to failure: The marriage seems doomed to failure.
doomed adjective : fate, destiny, lot, ruin, death
draw : drag, pull, tug1 verb tugged, tugging [intransitive, transitive]
also tug at to pull with one or more short, quick pulls: She kept tugging insistently at Alan's sleeve., attract
dread : fear, awe
dreary also drear poetical adjective
not interesting or cheerful: the same old dreary routine | a dreary winter's day􀀆: gloomy, dismal
drive : impel, compel, force dubious : doubtful dull : boring, tedious, uninteresting, blunt1 adjective
- 83 -
1 not sharp or pointed: All I could find was a blunt pencil. Opposite sharp1 (1), sharp1 (11)
2 speaking in an honest way even if this upsets people: Jan was􀀆straightforward and blunt as always.
also bluntly
bluntness noun [uncountable]
dumb : mute, speechless durable* : lasting, enduring, constant, permanent
dusky adjective
dark or not very bright in colour: The room was filled with dusky shadows. | dusky pink/orange/blue etc: a dusky pink room : dim, shadowy, cloudy, obscure
duty : obligation dwarf : pygmy (Ant) giant dwell : abide, reside, live, inhabit
***** (E) *****
earn : gain, acquire, win, obtain, secure, procure earnest : sincere, ardent adjective
1 showing strong positive feelings about an activity and determination to succeed at it: an ardent supporter of free trade
2 literary showing strong feelings of love: an ardent suitor ?ardently adverb , eager
easy : facile adjective
- 84 -
1 a facile remark, argument etc is too simple and shows a lack of careful
thought or understanding: facile logic
2 [only before noun] formal a facile achievement or success has been
obtained too easily: a facile victory facilely adverb facileness noun [uncountable] , light
ebb : subside verb [intransitive]
1 if a feeling or noise subsides, it gradually decreases: Simon􀀆waited until the laughter subsided.
2 if a building subsides, it gradually sinks further into the ground
3 if land subsides, its surface sinks to a lower level: After the heavy rains, part of the road subsided.
4 if bad weather conditions subside, they gradually return to a normal state: Then the wind subsided, and all was quiet.
, abate, recede, retire
economical : saving, thrifty, frugal edge : border, margin, boundary, verge, brink effect : result, consequence, outcome, accomplish verb [transitive] to succeed in doing something, especially after trying very hard; achieve:
We have accomplished all we set out to do., achieve
effective : efficacious, efficient, effectual effort : endeavor, exertion, struggle, striving egoism : selfishness
elaborate1 adjective
containing a lot of small details or parts that are connected with each other in a complicated way: an elaborate mosaic consisting of thousands of tiny pieces | elaborate
- 85 -
plan/notes/excuses etc (=carefully produced and full of
details) ?elaborately adverb : an elaborately carved wooden statue ?elaborateness noun [uncountable] : detailed, intricate,
complicated
elegant : tasteful, refined, polished, graceful element : component, constituent, ingredient elementary : primary, rudimentary, basic, fundamental elevate : raise, lift, exalt, heighten, increase, enhance eliminate : remove elude : avoid, escape, evade, shun, dodge1 verb
1 [transitive] to move quickly in order to avoid being hit by someone or something: I managed to dodge the shot that came flying through the air.
2 [intransitive always + adv/prep] to move quickly in a particular direction to avoid someone or something
[+ into/out/behind]: He dodged in and out of the traffic.
3 [transitive] to avoid a law or unpleasant duty in a dishonest􀀆way: Senator O'Brian skilfully dodged the crucial question.
4 dodge the issue to avoid considering or discussing something that needs to be dealt with
embarrass : confuse, perplex embed* : fix, fasten, root􀀆emerge : emanate, appear emergency : crisis eminent : distinguished, prominent, renowned, outstanding emit : discharge, shed, radiate emphatic : forcible, strong employ** : use, engage, hire empower : authorize, warrant1 noun
- 86 -
1 [countable] written permission from a court of law allowing the police to take a particular action
[+ for]: The magistrate issued a warrant for his arrest. | search warrant (=permission to go into someone's house to look for something)
also death warrant
2 [uncountable] formal good enough reason for doing something; justification
also unwarranted, enable, permit
empty : void, vacant, blank, unoccupied enchant : fascinate, captivate, charm encircle : surround, encompass, enclose enclose* : surround, circle, beset, encompass, besiege, encircle, envelop, compass encounter : meet face encourage : hearten, stimulate endeavor : effort, struggle, labor, exertion, essay1 noun
[countable]
1 a short piece of writing by a student as part of a course of study [+ on/about]: an essay on the causes of the French Revolution
2 a short piece of writing giving someone's ideas about politics, society etc
3 formal an attempt to do something
endow : confer, bestow, give endowment : gift, capacity, talent endure : sustain, bear, stand, tolerate enemy : foe, adversary, opponent, antagonist enlarge : extend, augment verb [transitive] formal to increase the value, amount, effectiveness etc of something: new
- 87 -
taxes intended to augment government income
, amplify, magnify, expand
enlighten : 1. illumine enliven : invigorate, animate enormous : huge, immense, vast, mammoth, gigantic enrage : anger, aggravate verb [transitive]
1 to make a bad situation worse: Their debt problem was aggravated by a rise in interest rates.
2 informal to make someone angry or annoyed: Stop aggravating the cat! aggravating adjective aggravatingly adverb aggravation noun [countable, uncountable]
ensue : follow, succeed
entangle verb [transitive always + adv/prep] to make something become twisted or caught in a rope, net etc
: complicate, involve
enterprising : ambitious, adventurous, energetic entertain : divert, amuse, please enthusiasm : eagerness, zeal, passion enthusiastic : ardent, zealous, eager, passionate entitle : empower, qualify entity noun [countable] formal something that exists as a single and complete unit: The􀀆mind and
body are seen as separate entities.
: thing, individual, object, envelop : surround, enclose envy : jealousy equal : equivalent, alike
equip verb equipped, equipping [transitive]
- 88 -
1 to provide a person, group, building etc with the things that􀀆are needed for a particular kind of activity or work : equip sb with: The boys equipped themselves with torches and rope, and set off. | be equipped to do sth: The emergency services are equipped to deal with disasters of this kind. | equip sb/sth: It cost $100,000 to equip the gym. | well/poorly/fully etc equipped: It was a modern, bright, well equipped hospital.
2 if education or training equips you to do something, it prepares you and makes you able to do it : equip sb for: We want our son to have an education that will equip him for later life. : furnish, provide
era* : time, period, age, epoch
erect : upright standing, vertical
erroneous : mistaken, incorrect, false
error : mistake, blunder, slip up phrasal verb [intransitive]
to make a mistake: The office slipped up and the letter was never sent.
escape : flee, evade, avoid escort : convoy, guard, guide essential* : indispensable, vital, fundamental establish : found, institute esteem : prize, value, respect estimate : judge, assess, value, evaluate, appraise verb
[transitive]
to officially judge how successful, effective, or valuable someone or something is; evaluate: A dealer came to appraise the furniture.
eternal : endless, everlasting, infinite, perpetual, ceaseless,permanent
evade : escape, elude, shun
evaporate : vaporize
even : level, flat, plane
- 89 -
event : occurrence, happening, incident eventually* : ultimately, finally in time, in the long run.
evident : plain, clear, obvious, manifest, apparent evil : immoral, malicious examine : inspect, probe, investigate exceed : surpass, excel, outstrip excel : surpass, outdo, exceed excellent : fine, eminent exceptional : unusual, extraordinary, abnormal excessive : extreme exchange : barter, interchange, swap1 verb swapped, swapping [intransitive, transitive]
1 to exchange something with someone, especially so that each of you get what you want; trade2 (1): I liked her coat and she liked mine, so we swapped. | swap sth for sth: Adam swapped three of his stickers for three of Alex's. | swap sth with sb: I swapped hats with Mandy. | swap sb sth for sth: I'll swap you two of mine for one of yours.
2 swap places also swap round BrE to let someone sit or stand in your place, so that you can have their place: I want to sit by Val; can we swap places?
excite : stir, arouse, stimulate, incite exclamation : outcry exclude : expel exclusive : excluding execute : perform, achieve exert* : exercise, wield verb [transitive]
1 wield power/influence/authority etc to have a lot of power or􀀆influence, and be ready to use it: The Church wields immense power in Ireland.
- 90 -
2 to hold a weapon or tool that you are going to use: She had her car windows smashed by a gang wielding baseball bats.
exhaust : expend verb [transitive]
expend time/money/resources etc to use or spend a lot of time etc in order to do something: Try not to expend more energy than necessary. | expend sth in/on (doing) sth: A great deal of time and money has been expended on creating a pleasant office atmosphere.
, consume exhibit : present, display, show, demonstrate
exorbitant adjective
an exorbitant price, rate, demand etc is much higher than is reasonable or usual: It's a good restaurant but the prices are exorbitant. ?exorbitance noun [uncountable] ?exorbitantly adverb
* : extreme, excessive, undue adjective [only before noun] formal more than is reasonable, suitable, or necessary: We managed to get through Customs without undue difficulty.
, extravagant, immoderate adjective formal
not within reasonable and sensible limits; excessive: immoderate wage
demands | immoderate drinking immoderately adverb
, inordinate, expensive
expand : extend, swell, enlarge expect : anticipate, await expel : oust, banish, exile expend : use, consume, spend, exhaust expense : cost, charge, price, expenditure expensive : costly, dear experiment : test, trial expert : specialist, authority, master explain : elucidate verb [intransitive, transitive] formal to explain something that is difficult to understand very clearly,
- 91 -
by providing more information: His theory is further elucidated in a series of articles published between 1976 and 1980.
elucidation / noun [countable, uncountable] elucidatory adverb
, explicate, clarify
explicit : clear, unambiguous, definite (Ant) ambiguous
exploit : 1. feat noun [countable]
something that someone does that is impressive because it needs􀀆a􀀆lot of skill, strength etc
[+ of]: a remarkable feat of engineering | perform/accomplish/achieve a feat: How did they accomplish such an extraordinary feat? | sth is no mean feat (=is difficult to do): Getting a degree is no mean feat!, accomplishment
expose** : display, betray verb [transitive]
1 to be disloyal to someone who trusts you so that they are harmed or upset : betray sb (to sb): What kind of man would betray his own sister to the police?
2 to be disloyal to your country, for example by giving secret information to its enemies: people who are prepared to betray their country for money
3 betray your beliefs/principles/ideals etc to stop supporting your old beliefs and principles, especially in order to get power or avoid trouble
4 [not in progressive or passive] to show feelings that you are􀀆trying to hide: The tremor in his voice betrayed his nervousness.
betrayer noun [countable] , reveal, uncover
express : utter, state, manifest, reveal, represent
extend* : (1)􀀆go, run, range.
(2) increase, grow, expand, enlarge, augment (3) stretch, lengthen, elongate verb [intransitive, transitive] to become longer, or make something longer than normal - 92 -
elongation noun [countable, uncountable] , protract
extensive : wide, broad, spacious, vast extent : space, scope, range, stretch exterior : outer, outside, external exterminate : annihilate, destroy, eradicate, eliminate extinct : quench verb [transitive]
1 quench your thirst to stop yourself from feeling thirsty: Iced tea really quenches your thirst.
2 quench a fire to make a fire stop burning, vanished
extract : extort verb [transitive]
to illegally force someone to give you money by threatening them : extort money from/out of sb: Landlords tried to cover their losses by extorting high rents from tenants.
extortion noun [uncountable]: Confessions were obtained by extortion. extortioner noun [countable] extortionist noun [countable] , derive
extraordinary : exceptional, inordinate, remarkable, unusual extravagant : wasteful, prodigal (Ant) thrifty extreme : ultimate, excessive, unreasonable
***** (F) *****
fable : legend fabricate : make, build, produce, construct, assemble,manufacture face : countenance1 / noun formal
- 93 -
1 [countable] your face or your expression: the gloomy countenance of a disappointed child
2 [uncountable] support or approval, features
faculty : ability, capacity, aptitude noun [countable, uncountable]
natural ability or skill, especially in learning
[+ for]: She has a real aptitude for drawing and painting.
fade : wither, decline, decay failing : shortcoming, defect, flaw faint : indistinct adjective
an indistinct sound, image, or memory cannot be seen, heard, or􀀆remembered
clearly: She muttered something indistinct. ?indistinctly adverb ?indistinctness noun [uncountable] , dim, feeble
fair : unbiased, just, impartial, disinterested faith : confidence, trust, credit faithful : true, reliable adjective someone or something that is reliable can be trusted or depended on: She
may forget -she's not very reliable. | a reliable source of information pposite unreliable
reliably adverb reliability / / noun [uncountable] , trustworthy false* : erroneous, wrong fame : reputation, renown, eminence noun
1 [uncountable] the quality of being famous and important: a scientist of great eminence
2 [countable] formal a hill or area of high ground
3 Eminence a title used when talking to or about a cardinal (=priest of high rank in the Roman Catholic Church) : Their Eminences
- 94 -
are discussing the matter., celebrity familiar : intimate , close, friendly, amicable famous : celebrated, well-known, eminent, distinguished,illustrious fancy : imagination, fantasy fascinate : charm, enchant, captivate, allure1 / noun [singular, uncountable]
a mysterious, exciting, or desirable quality that is very attractive: Even in her fifties she had lost none of her seductive allure. | the allure of foreign travel
fashion* : style, vogue, mode
1. make, produce, shape, frame, mold, create, fabricate 2. fit, adjust, suit, adapt, accommodate verb 1 [transitive] to have or provide enough space for a particular􀀆number of people or things: The hall can only accommodate 200 people. | building bigger and bigger highways to accommodate more cars
2 [transitive] to give someone a place to stay, live, or work
3 [transitive] to accept someone's opinions and try to do what they want, especially when their opinions or needs are different from yours: We've made every effort to accommodate your point of view.
4 [intransitive + to, transitive] formal to get used to a new situation or make yourself do this
5 [transitive] formal to give someone more time to pay you money that they owe you because they have financial problems, conform
fast : quick, swift, rapid, fleet
fasten : fix, attach,plump1 adjective
- 95 -
1 a word meaning pleasantly fat, often used when you want to avoid saying the word fat: The nurse was a cheerful plump woman. | Dad's getting a bit plump - he needs to go on a diet.
2 having a full, round shape: plump, soft pillows | plump juicy􀀆tomatoes ompare chubby, portly
fatal : deadly, mortal, lethal fate : doom1 verb [transitive usually passive] to make someone or something certain to fail, die, be destroyed􀀆etc : doom
sth to sth: The species is doomed to extinction. | doom sb/sth to do sth: Marx's theory was that capitalist economies are eventually doomed to collapse. | doomed to failure: The marriage seems doomed to failure.
doomed adjective , lot, destiny
fault : blemish, flaw, shortcoming favor : kindness, good-will fear : apprehension noun
1 [countable, uncountable] anxiety about the future, especially􀀆the worry that you will have to deal with something unpleasant or bad: a natural apprehension about being in hospital
2 [uncountable] the act of apprehending someone; arrest2
3 [uncountable] old use understanding: our apprehension of the nature of God
, dread, terror, fright, horror, panic. feasible adjective a plan, idea, or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to work:
Your plan is not economically feasible. feasibly adverb feasibility noun [uncountable]: a feasibility study
* : possible, workable, practicable, viable feast : celebration, anniversary, ceremony feat noun [countable] - 96 -
something that someone does that is impressive because it needs􀀆a􀀆lot of skill, strength etc
[+ of]: a remarkable feat of engineering | perform/accomplish/achieve a feat: How did they accomplish such an extraordinary feat? | sth is no mean feat (=is difficult to do): Getting a degree is no mean feat!
: achievement, accomplishment, exploit feeble : weak, delicate, fragile, frail // adjective
1 someone who is frail is thin and weak, especially because they are old: He was a man of about sixty, frail and bent.
2 not strongly made or built and therefore easily damaged: It seemed impossible that these frail boats could survive in such a storm.
compare fragile, unsubstantial feed : nourish, sustain fertile : productive, fecund adjective formal able to produce many children, young animals, or crops; fertile fecundity / / noun [uncountable], fruitful fervent : ardent, earnest, heated, hot, burning, zealous,passionate􀀆
feud1 noun [countable] an angry and often violent quarrel between two people or groups􀀆that lasts
for a long time [+ over]: a bitter feud over territory􀀆: hostility fidelity : loyalty, faithfulness, devotion fierce : ferocious adjective
1 violent, dangerous, and frightening: The battle was long and ferocious. | ferocious dogs
2 very strong, severe, and unpleasant: a ferocious headache | The heat was ferocious. ferociously adverb
- 97 -
ferociousness noun [uncountable], wild, savage, cruel, brutal fiery adjective
1 containing or looking like fire: a fiery sunset
2 bright red: a fiery blush
3 becoming angry very quickly: He has a very fiery temper.
4 showing or encouraging anger: a fiery speech
5 fiery foods taste very strong and hot􀀆: fervent, burning, afire fight : conflict, battle, war, combat final : ultimate, conclusive financial : monetary, pecuniary fine* : 1. delicate, elegant, exquisite adjective
1 extremely beautiful and very delicately made: exquisite craftsmanship
2 very sensitive and delicate in the way you behave or do things: Darling, you have exquisite taste.
3 literary exquisite pain or pleasure is felt very strongly exquisitely adverb exquisiteness noun [uncountable]
2. subtle, refined finish : end, terminate, conclude firm : stable, steadfast, determined, reliable fix : fasten, attach flame : blaze, fire flash : flame, flare, glare flat : horizontal, level, even, plane flexible* : plastic, adaptable, adjustable, pliable
adjective 1 easy to bend without breaking or cracking: The clay should be􀀆moistened
- 98 -
regularly to keep it soft and pliable.
2 able and willing to change and accept new ideas and ways of doing things; adaptable: The committee would benefit from having members who are more pliable.
3 too easily influenced by other people pliability noun [uncountable]
flock : bevy noun [countable] a large group of people of the same kind, especially girls or young women [+ of]: Tom swaggered in surrounded by a bevy of beauties.
, brood, school, swarm, herd, company
flood : deluge, overflow flourish* : thrive, prosper, succeed flow : stream, run fluent : flowing foe : enemy, opponent, adversary, antagonist fog : mist, haze follow : succeed, ensue food : provisions foolish : silly, fatuous /adjective
very silly or stupid: fatuous comments fatuously adverb fatuousness noun [uncountable] , stupid, dull forbid : inhibit, prohibit force : strength, power, might, energy forecast : predict, foretell, foresee foresight : forethought formidable : dreadful, threatening, fearful, frightful foster : rear, breed, nourish, raise, promote foul : filthy1 / adjective filthier, filthiest
1 extremely dirty: Simon never cleans his house -it's absolutely filthy!
2 showing or describing sexual acts in a very rude or offensive􀀆way: Mitch
- 99 -
was just telling us a filthy joke when Kia walked in. ?filthily adverb ?filthiness noun [uncountable] , dirty, stained, polluted
foundation : base, basis, ground fragrant : perfumed frame : make, produce, construct, assemble, shape, mold, frank : candid, outspoken
fraud / / noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a method of illegally getting money from someone, often by using clever and complicated methods: financial losses due to theft or fraud | tax/share/bankruptcy etc fraud (=fraud in a particular financial area)
2 [countable] someone who deceives people to gain money, friendship etc: She realized􀀆later that the insurance salesman had been a fraud.
: deceit, deception
free : liberate, release, emancipate verb [transitive]
formal to make someone free from social, political, or legal restrictions
that limit what they can do: Learning will emancipate the
oppressed and engender social change.
emancipation noun [uncountable]: the emancipation of slaves
freight : cargo, shipment, load fright : dismay, terror, panic frighten : scare, terrify, alarm, dismay frightful : alarming, awful, horrible, gruesome adjective very unpleasant and shocking, and usually connected with death or injury;
grisly: Spare me all the gruesome details. gruesomely adverb
frugal : economical, thrifty
fruitless : futile adjective
actions that are futile are useless because they have no chance􀀆of being successful: a futile attempt to save the paintings from
-100 -
the flames | be futile to do sth: It was futile to continue
the negotiations.
futility / / noun [uncountable] sterile, unproductive
frustrate : disappoint, thwart fume : smoke fun : pleasure, amusement fundamental* : basic, underlying, essential, primary funny : amusing, diverting furnish : provide, supply fury : rage, anger, wrath fuse : melt, dissolve futile : ineffective, useless, vain
***** (G) *****
gaiety : mirth, glee, cheerfulness, joviality gain : obtain, secure, procure, acquire, attain, earn, win gallant : brave, valorous,􀀆valiant, intrepid / adjective especially
literary willing to do dangerous things or go to dangerous places: intrepid explorers
, daring gang : band, clique gasp : pant / verb
1 [intransitive] to breathe quickly with short noisy breaths because you have been running, climbing etc or because it is very hot: He was panting after his exertions. | The dog lay panting on the doorstep.
2 [transitive] to say something while panting: "I can't run any􀀆farther," she panted.
-101 -
pant for sth phrasal verb [transitive] to want something very much: He was panting for a chance to speak. pant noun [countable]
gather : collect, aggregate, assemble, muster1 / verb
1 muster (up) courage/support/energy etc to try to find as much􀀆courage, support etc as you can in order to do something difficult: Finally I mustered up the courage to ask her out. | Senator Newbolt has been trying to muster support for his proposals.
2 [intransitive, transitive] to gather a group of people, especially soldiers, together in one place, or to come together as a group: In April 1185 he began to muster an army.
gathering : assembly, convocation noun formal
a) [countable] an organization of church officials or members of some universities that holds formal meetings b) [countable] formal meetings held in this way: He first gave the speech at a German university convocation in March. 2 [uncountable] the process of arranging for a large meeting to be held
3 [countable] AmE the ceremony held when students have passed their
examinations and are leaving university, congregation gay : joyous, gleeful, jovial, jolly, merry, cheerful gaze : stare generosity : charity, bountifulness generous : bountiful, unselfish, charitable
genial / / adjective having a cheerful and friendly character or manner genially adverb [uncountable]
-102 -
geniality / noun [countable]􀀆: sympathetic, cordial1 /noun [countable, uncountable]
1 BrE sweet fruit juice that you add water to before you drink it: a lime cordial
2 AmE old-fashioned a strong sweet alcoholic drink; liqueur: We􀀆were offered an after-dinner cordial., friendly, kindly
gentle : clement / / adjective formal
1 willing not to punish someone too severely
2 clement weather is neither too hot nor too cold; mild1 (3) 뾬pposite inclement
clemency noun [uncountable]
clemently adverb , humane, lenient / / adjective
not strict in the way you punish someone or control their behaviour: Judges have been accused of being far too lenient in rape cases.
| a very lenient sentence
leniently adverb
leniency also lenience noun [uncountable] , merciful, meek, amiable
ghost : phantom, spirit gift : donation, present, contribution, offering, alms / / noun [plural]
old-fashioned money, food, clothes etc that are given to poor people
gigantic : huge, enormous, tremendous, colossal, mammoth, monstrous, immense, prodigious, titanic, vast give : deliver, bestow, impart, accord, furnish, provide, supply, confer, grant, assign glad : delighted, pleased, elated / adjective extremely happy and excited, especially because you have been successful:
Elated by our victory, we sang all the way home.
glance : glimpse
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gleam1 / verb [intransitive]
1 to shine softly: The spire of the Golden Temple gleamed in the autumn sun.
[+ with]: the table's surface gleaming with wax polish
2 gleam with happiness/joy etc if your eyes or face gleam with a feeling, they show it: His face gleamed with amusement.
gleaming adjective : gleaming glass skyscrapers,flash, beam, glimmer
glee : exultation, merriment, hilarity glide : slide, slip gloomy : obscure, shadowy, dusky, dismal, depressed,
dejected, dim, melancholy1 / / adjective sad or making you feel sad: a melancholy expression | the seagulls' melancholy cry, despondent, downcast glory : praise, honor, distinction, renown, eminence,celebrity,􀀆fame􀀆
godly : pious, saintly, devout, holy good-will : benevolence, favor, kindness govern : rule, reign grace : gracefulness, elegance, refinement gracious /adjective
1 behaving in a polite, kind, and generous way, especially to people of a lower class: Thank you for your gracious hospitality.
2 having the kind of expensive style, comfort, and beauty that only rich people can afford: gracious colonial houses | the gracious ease of the hotel foyer | gracious living (=an easy way of life enjoyed by rich people)
3 a word meaning kind and forgiving, used to describe God graciously adverb graciousness noun [uncountable] : benign, courteous, polite grand1 adjective
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1 a grand building, occasion etc is very impressive: We attended a grand ceremony at the Palace. | on a grand scale: Preparations for the wedding are taking place on a grand scale.
2 a grand plan or idea aims to achieve something very impressive: As a young minister he was full of grand ideas for social reform.
3 people who are grand are rich and important but often too proud: A very grand-looking gentleman entered the room.
4 informal or dialect very good, pleasant, or enjoyable: We had a grand day out at the seaside. | Wasn't it grand to see Ted again?
5 grand total the final total you get when you add up several numbers or amounts
6 the Grand Old Man of a man who has been involved in an activity or a profession for a long time and is highly respected: the Grand Old Man of British theatre
grandly adverb grandness noun [uncountable] : impose/ verb
1 impose a ban/tax/fine etc (on) to officially order that something should be forbidden, restricted, taxed etc, or that someone should be punished: The government imposed a ban on the sale of ivory. | We have decided to impose sanctions on countries that break the agreement.
2 impose a burden/strain etc (on/upon) to have a bad effect on something or someone by causing them problems: The President's health care proposals would not impose any great burden on the state's finances.
3 [transitive] to force someone to have the same ideas or beliefs as you : impose sth on sb: parents who impose their own moral values
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on their children
4 [intransitive] to unreasonably expect or ask someone to do something for you when this is inconvenient for them [+ on/upon]: We could ask them to let us stay the night, but I don't want
to impose on them., majestic, dignified grant : bestow, confer, award grasp : seize, hold, clasp1 noun
1 [countable] a small metal object for fastening a bag, belt, piece of jewellery etc
2 [singular] a tight hold; grip1 (1): the firm, reassuring clasp of her hand
, grip, clutch, grab, catch
grateful : appreciative, thankful, obliged gratify : satisfy grave : momentous, important, serious, consequential great : immense, enormous, huge, gigantic, vast, grand greed : avid / adjective
avid reader/listener/fan etc someone who does something, listens to something etc as much as they can: an avid collector of old jazz records
, avarice, covetousness
greedy : avaricious, desirous, covetous
greet : accost / verb [transitive]
to go towards someone you do not know and speak to them in an unpleasant or threatening way: On the station she was accosted by a
man asking for money., salute
grief : sorrow, woe, sadness
grieve : lament, mourn, sorrow, bewail / / verb [transitive]
literary to express deep sadness or disappointment about something
grind1 /graInd/ verb past tense and past participle ground /graUnd/
1 INTO SMALL PIECES [transitive]
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a) also grind up [transitive] to break something such as corn or coffee beans into small pieces or powder, either in a machine or between two hard surfaces b) AmE to cut food, especially raw meat, into very small pieces by􀀆putting it through a machine: mince1 (1) BrE 2 SMOOTH/SHARP [transitive] to make something smooth or sharp by rubbing it on a hard surface or by using a machine: a stone for grinding knives and scissors | The lenses are ground to a high standard of precision.
3 PRESS STH DOWN [transitive always + adv/prep] to press something down into a surface and rub it with a strong twisting movement : grind sth into/in: He dropped a cigar butt and ground it into the carpet with his heel.
4 grind your teeth to rub your upper and lower teeth together making a noise
5 grind to a halt
a) if a vehicle grinds to a halt, it stops gradually: Traffic ground to a halt as it approached the accident site. b) if a country, organization, or process grinds to a halt, it gradually stops working: As more and more workers joined the strike, Britain's economy was grinding to a halt. 6 grind the faces of the poor to make poor people work very hard and give them almost nothing in return
also have an axe to grind axe1 (4)
grind sb down phrasal verb [transitive]
to treat someone in a cruel way for such a long time that they lose all courage and hope; oppress: Years of dictatorship had ground the people down.
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grind on phrasal verb [intransitive] to continue for an unpleasantly long time: Winter grinds on until March.
grind sth out phrasal verb [transitive]
to produce information, writing, music etc in such large amounts that it becomes boring: Frank just keeps grinding out detective stories. : grate1 noun [countable]
the metal bars and frame that hold the wood, coal etc in a fireplace, rub􀀆
gross : 1. bulky, massive, great grudge1 / / noun [countable]
1 a feeling of anger or dislike you have for someone because you cannot forget that they harmed you
[+ against]: He's had a grudge against Bob ever since he was promoted. | bear (sb) a grudge (=continue to have a grudge)
2 grudge fight/match a fight or competition in sport between two people who dislike each other a lot : malice /noun [uncountable]
1 the desire or intention to deliberately harm someone: There was no need for Jane to tell them -she did it out of sheer malice. | bear sb no malice (=not want to harm someone although they have behaved badly to you)
2 with malice aforethought law a criminal act that is done with malice aforethought is done in a carefully planned and deliberate way
, spite, malevolence
guarantee : insure, warrant guard : protect, shield, defend, shelter guess : conjecture1 / noun formal
1 [uncountable] the act of thinking of reasons, explanations etc without
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having very much information to base them on: She didn't know the facts, so what she said was pure conjecture. | conjecture about their role in the affair
2 [countable] an idea or opinion formed by guessing: My results􀀆show that this conjecture was, in fact, correct. conjectural adjective , suppose, fancy
guide : lead, conduct, show, escort guilty : criminal, culpable guiltless : innocent, blameless, immaculate / adjective
1 very clean and tidy: Richard looked immaculate in a white silk dinner jacket.
2 exactly correct or perfect in every detail: Your timing is immaculate! immaculately adverb
gush1 verb
1 [intransitive always + adv/prep] if a liquid gushes from something, such as a hole or cut, it comes out in large quantities [+ out/from/down etc]: The blood began to gush out, red and frightening. | oil gushing from the broken pipe
2 [transitive] if something gushes a liquid, large quantities of that liquid come out of it: The wound gushed blood.
3 [intransitive, transitive] to express your admiration, pleasure etc too strongly so that people do not think you are sincere: 밒 simply loved your book, ?she gushed.
4 [intransitive] if words or emotions gush out, you suddenly express them very strongly: All that pent up frustration gushed out in a torrent of abuse.
: spurt1 / / verb
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1 [intransitive] if liquid or flames spurt from something they pour out of it quickly and suddenly
[+ from/out of]: Water began spurting from a hole in the pipe.
2 [transitive] to send out liquid or flames
3 [intransitive always + adv/prep] to move somewhere very quickly
[+ towards/across]: He spurted towards the finishing line., spout1 / / noun [countable]
1 a small tube or pipe on a container that you pour liquid out through
2 a spout of water/blood etc a sudden strong stream of liquid which comes out of somewhere very fast: The whale blew a spout of water into the air.
also waterspout
3 up the spout BrE informal
a) if someone's plans have gone up the spout, they cannot succeed: Her chances of studying medicine have gone up the spout. b) completely wrong: His calculations are completely up the spout. c) old-fashioned going to have a baby; pregnant ***** (H) *****
habitual* : usual, regular, customary, accustomed habituate : accustom, familiarize halt : stop, cease
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hamper : impede, hinder, prevent, obstruct, restrain, hang : suspend, dangle happen : occur, befall verb past tense befell
past participle befallen [transitive] formal
if something unpleasant or dangerous befalls you it happens to you: We prayed that no harm should befall them.
harbor : accommodate, board, room shelter, protection, cover, haven, sanctuary, refuge, sylum hard : solid, inflexible, unyielding hardship : trial WORRY/ANNOY be a trial (to) to be very worrying
or annoying to someone: My brothers and I were always a
real trial to my parents., oppression, suffering
hardy : vigorous, sturdy, robust, stout
harm : injury, damage, hurt, mischief, detriment noun [uncountable]
formal
the state of being harmed or damaged by something : to the detriment of (=resulting in harm or damage to something): He worked longer and longer hours, to the detriment of his marriage.
harmony : agreement, concord, unity harsh : rough, severe, austere / adjective
1 plain and simple and without any decoration: the austere grandeur of the old church
2 someone who is austere is very strict and looks very serious
3 an austere way of life is very simple and has few things to make it comfortable or enjoyable
austerely adverb
hasten : hurry, accelerate, urge, expedite, quicken hate : detest, abhor, loathe hateful : detestable, abominable, loathsome, offensive hatred : aversion / noun [singular, uncountable]
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a strong dislike of something or someone
[+ to]: Despite his aversion to publicity, Arnold was persuaded to talk to the press. | have an aversion to: I have an aversion to housework.
, hate, detestation
haughty : proud, arrogant hazard : danger, peril, jeopardy heal : cure, remedy, amend heap : mass, stack, pile, accumulation heavy : weighty, demanding, burdensome helpful : useful, advantageous, profitable heritage : inheritance heroic : brave, courageous, dauntless, gallant hide : conceal, screen, veil, shroud, cover hinder : interrupt, check, impede, hamper, obstruct hint : suggestion, implication, allusion / noun [countable, uncountable]
something that is said or written that brings attention to a particular
subject in a way that is not direct [+ to]: Eliot's poetry is full of allusions to other works of literature. allusive / adjective allusively adverb
hoarse : husky hoist : raise, elevate, lift hole : opening, cavity, hollow, pit homely : plain, simple, unattractive, ugly honesty : uprightness, justice honor : fame, repute, reputation hopeless : desperate adjective
1 willing to do anything and not caring about danger, because you are in a very bad situation: We had no food left at all and were getting desperate. | an appeal from the teenager's desperate parents
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2 [not before noun] needing or wanting something very much
[+ for]: By then I was desperate for a holiday. | desperate to do sth: Ben was desperate to get a job. | in desperate need: We're in desperate need of help.
3 a desperate situation is very bad or serious: There was a desperate shortage of doctors.
4 a desperate action is something that you only do because you are in a very bad situation : desperate attempt/effort/measures: The victim had made a desperate attempt to escape.
, despairing, despondent adjective
unhappy and not hopeful: Gill had been out of work for a year and was getting very despondent.
despondency noun [uncountable]
despondently adverb : He was staring despondently into the distance.
horrible : terrible, dreadful, hideous adjective extremely unpleasant or ugly: a hideous dress hideously adverb hideousness noun [uncountable] , grim, ghastly adjective
1 a ghastly situation, person, experience etc is one that you do not like or enjoy at all: What ghastly weather! | I hope they don't bring their ghastly children with them. | It was absolutely ghastly.
2 making you very frightened, upset or shocked: a ghastly accident
3 look/feel ghastly to look or feel ill, upset, or unhappy: Are􀀆you alright? You look ghastly!
ghastliness noun [uncountable]
hostile : antagonistic
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horror : fear, dread, panic hostility : enmity, antagonism huge : mammoth, vast, gigantic, colossal, immense humane : merciful, benevolent, compassionate, charitable humble : unassuming, meek / adjective
very quiet and gentle and unwilling to argue or express an opinion: a meek and obedient child | meek and mild (=extremely quiet and gentle): She'd never stand up for herself, she's too meek and mild.
meekly adverb : She smiled meekly. meekness noun [uncountable] , modest, unpretending humid : damp, moist humiliate : degrade, disgrace, shame humility : meekness, humbleness, modesty humorous : funny, comical hunt : seek, scour / / verb [transitive]
1 to search very carefully and thoroughly through an area, a document, etc: A team of detectives is scouring the countryside.
2 also scour out to clean something very thoroughly by rubbing it with a􀀆rough material: The pans really needed to be scoured.
3 also scour out to form a hole by continuous movement over a long period: Over the years, the stream had scoured out a round pool in the rock.
scour noun [singular]
hurt : injure, damage, mar, impair hypocrite : pretender
***** (I) *****
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ideal* : 1. perfect, model, exemplary
2. abstract, theoretical, hypothetical idiotic : foolish, stupid, fatuous / / adjective very silly or stupid: fatuous comments fatuously adverb fatuousness noun [uncountable] idle : indolent adjective formal lazy indolently adverb indolence noun [uncountable]: a life of luxury and indolence , lazy, slothful adjective formal lazy or not active slothfully adverb slothfulness noun [uncountable]
ignoble : mean, base, degraded
ignorant adjective
1 not knowing facts or information that you ought to know: an ignorant and
uneducated man [+ of]: They were ignorant of any events outside their own town. [+ about]: I'm very ignorant about politics.ignore
2 caused by a lack of knowledge and understanding: What an ignorant thing to say! | ignorant opinions
3 BrE spoken rude or impolite􀀆: illiterate, uneducated
ignore : overlook, disregard, neglect illegal : unlawful, illegitimate, illicit illustration : explanation imaginary : fanciful, visionary imitate : mimic, mock, reproduce, copy, duplicate, replicate immerse : submerge, dip, submerse
imminent / / adjective an event that is imminent will happen very soon: A declaration of war now
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seemed imminent. | The company is now in imminent danger
of collapse.
immanent
imminence noun [uncountable]
imminently adverb􀀆: impending
immoderate adjective formal
not within reasonable and sensible limits; excessive: immoderate wage
demands | immoderate drinking
immoderately adverb : excessive, extreme, exorbitant
immoral : vicious, corrupt, amoral adjective
having no moral standards at all: a completely amoral person
amorality noun [uncountable]
impair : injure, deteriorate impart : give, bestow, grant, confer impartial : unbiased, just, fair, disinterested impel : compel, drive, urge implore : supplicate, beseech, entreat, crave verb [transitive]
1 to have an extremely strong desire for something, especially a drug: She's an insecure child who craves attention.
2 formal to ask seriously for something: May I crave your pardon?, beg,
solicit
impolite : uncivil, rude, discourteous
importance : consequence, moment, significance
impregnable : unassailable, invincible
improper : unfit, inappropriate
improve : ameliorate verb [transitive]
formal to make something better: measures to ameliorate working􀀆conditions
amelioration / noun [uncountable] , better
improvident / adjective formal
too careless to save any money or to plan for the future: the generous but
improvident welfare provision of the 1960s
improvidence noun [uncountable]
improvidently adverb :
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unwary, thoughtless, careless,imprudent / adjective formal
not sensible or wise: It would be rather imprudent to invest in an arms company
at the moment.
imprudently adverb
imprudence noun [countable, uncountable]
improvised : impromptu adjective done or said without any preparation or planning: an impromptu party impromptu adverb : He insists he was speaking impromptu.
impudent : brazen / adjective
1 behaving in an immoral way without being embarrassed or ashamed :􀀆a􀀆brazen hussy (=a woman who behaves this way, especially sexually)
2 brazen lie/attitude a lie or bad attitude that is shocking because the person responsible is not ashamed of it
3 literary having a shiny yellow colour
brazen sth out phrasal verb [transitive]
to deal with a situation that is difficult or embarrassing for you by appearing to be confident rather than ashamed, insolent adjective
rude and not showing any respect: an insolent tone of voice | You insolent child!
insolently adverb
insolence noun [uncountable] , rude
impulsive : emotional
impunity noun
do sth with impunity if you do something wrong or immoral with impunity, there is no risk that you will be punished for it: Men used to be able to violently abuse their wives with almost total impunity.
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: exemption impute verb
impute sth to sb/sth phrasal verb [transitive] formal
to say, often unfairly, that someone or something is responsible for something that has happened: The police were not guilty of the violence imputed to them.
imputable adjective imputation noun [countable, uncountable]􀀆: attribute, ascribe,
refer inaccurate : incorrect, erroneous adjective formal erroneous ideas, statements etc are wrong because they are based on
information that is not correct erroneously adverb
inactive : inert, lazy, passive, inanimate inadvertently adverb without realizing what you are doing: I inadvertently stepped on his toe. inadvertent adjective : the inadvertent disclosure of sensitive􀀆
information inadvertence noun [countable, uncountable]􀀆
: heedless, careless, negligent inanimate : lifeless inapt / adjective formal an inapt phrase, statement etc is not right for a particular situation:
a very inapt comment inept inaptly adverb inaptness noun [uncountable]
: unsuited, unsuitable, inappropriate, unfit inborn : innate, native, natural, congenital adjective
1 a congenital medical condition or disease has affected someone since they were born: congenital abnormalities | congenital defect
2 existing as a part of your character and unlikely to change: his congenital
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inability to make decisions | a congenital liar congenitally adverb
incarcerate verb [transitive usually passive] formal to keep someone in a place, especially a prison incarceration noun [uncountable] : imprison, confine incense1 noun [uncountable] a substance which has a pleasant smell when you burn it, and which is used
in religious ceremonies􀀆: scent, fragrance incentive : motive, stimulus, spur, impulse, goad, prod1 / verb prodded, prodding [intransitive, transitive]
1 to push or press something with your finger or a pointed object; poke1 (1): She prodded me sharply in the ribs. [+ at]: Theo prodded at the dead snake.
2 to strongly encourage someone to do something: She's not lazy, but she needs prodding. | prod sb into (doing) sth: We just need something to prod them into action.
incessant adjective
an incessant activity, noise etc continues without stopping, in􀀆an annoying way: The child's incessant talking started to irritate her.
incessantly adverb
: uninterrupted, unceasing, ceaseless, constant, continuous incidental : accidental, casual, contingent1 / adjective formal dependent on something that is uncertain or that will happen in􀀆the future [+ on/upon]: Further investment would be contingent upon the company's
profit performance. contingently adverb
incisive : penetrating, biting, acute, acid incite / / verb [transitive] to deliberately encourage people to cause trouble, fight, argue􀀆etc : incite
sb to do sth: He was charged with inciting the students
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to riot. | incite sb to sth: inflammatory articles that incited people to violence and hatred
incitement noun [uncountable]
: stimulate, spur, instigate, provoke inclination noun
1 DESIRE [countable, uncountable] a feeling that makes you want to do something: You always follow your own inclinations instead of considering other people's feelings. | inclination to do sth: I have not the slightest inclination to take unnecessary risks.
2 TENDENCY [countable, uncountable] tendency to think or behave in a particular way : inclination to do sth: an inclination to see everything in political terms
3 inclination of the head the movement of bending your neck so that your head is lowered: With a slight inclination of the head she showed her approval.
4 SLOPE [countable, uncountable] formal a slope or the angle at which something slopes􀀆: tendency, trend,
include : contain, comprise verb [not in progressive] formal
1 [linking verb] to consist of particular parts, groups etc: The house comprises 2 bedrooms, a kitchen, and a living room. | be comprised of: The city's population is largely comprised of Asians and Europeans.
2 [transitive] if different people or things comprise something they combine together to form it: Women comprise a high proportion of part-time workers.
see also constitute
USAGE NOTE : COMPRISE WORD CHOICE: make up, consist of, compose, comprise, include, constitute
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Things consist of or are made up of a series of parts, or more formally are composed of/comprise all their parts: New York City comprises Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, The Bronx and Staten Island .| a street composed mainly of detached houses (NOT composed by/from )| a family made up of six people | Dinner consisted of a starter, a main course and a dessert (NOT consisted in/on or was consisted of ). You will sometimes hear native speakers using comprise with of, but some people think this is incorrect: The company comprises of/is comprised of five divisions. If you only mention some of the parts, you use include: New York City includes Brooklyn and Queens. .All the parts of something together make up or more formally) constitute or (less frequently comprise the whole: Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, The Bronx and Staten Island constitute/comprise New York City .| How many people make up a basket ball team? GRAMMAR These words are not used in progressive tenses in these meanings.
income : returns, revenue, gain, earnings
incommode verb [transitive] formal
to make a situation difficult for someone, impede verb [transitive]
to prevent something from happening in the normal way, or make it happen more slowly: Storms at sea impeded our progress.􀀆hinder􀀆
incompatible : 1. inconsistent, contradictory, inharmonious
2. unable, incapable, incompetent inconsistent : incompatible, inharmonious, incongruous adjective something that is incongruous seems strange and unsuitable because it is so unexpected in a particular situation and so different from everything around it: The modern building looked incongruous in such a quaint old village.
incongruously adverb incongruousness noun [uncountable] ,incoherent
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inconstant : fickle adjective
1 someone who is fickle is always􀀆changing their mind about people or things that they like, so that you cannot depend on them: an unpredictable and fickle lover
2 something such as weather that is fickle often changes suddenly ?fickleness noun [uncountable]: the fickleness of fame , variable, volatile adjective
1 a volatile situation is likely to change suddenly and without much warning: a volatile economic environment
2 someone who is volatile can suddenly become angry or violent
3 a volatile liquid or substance changes easily into a gas volatility noun [uncountable] , unstable incontrovertible adjective a fact that is incontrovertible is definitely true and no one can prove
it to be false; indisputable: The photograph provides incontrovertible evidence that Martin was at the scene of the crime.
incontrovertibly adverb incontrovertability noun [uncountable] : indisputable incorporate* : v. combine, integrate, include increase : augment verb [transitive] formal to increase the value, amount, effectiveness etc of something: new
taxes intended to augment government income, enlarge incredulous : sceptical BrE, skeptical AmE adjective tending to doubt or not believe what other people tell you [+ about]: Many scientists remain skeptical about the value of this research
program. sceptically adverb , doubtful, dubious indecent : vulgar adjective
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1 remarks, jokes etc that are vulgar deal with sex in a very rude and offensive way
2 impolite and showing bad manners: vulgar habits
3 especially BrE not showing good judgment about what is beautiful or suitable: a vulgar display of wealth
vulgarly adverb , coarse, rude, immodest
indefinite : vague, obscure, confusing, uncertain
indifference : unconcern, apathy noun [uncountable]
the feeling of not being interested or not caring, either about􀀆a particular thing or about life: apathy among the public, inattention􀀆
indignation : resentment / noun [uncountable] a feeling of anger because something has happened that you think is unfair
, wrath, anger indignity : humiliation, insult, scorn indispensable : necessary, requisite, essential induce* : persuade, instigate, urge industrious : diligent, assiduous adjective formal very careful to make sure that something is done properly or completely:
an assiduous collector of folk songs
assiduously adverb
assiduity noun [uncountable]
inept / adjective
having no skill: an inept driver | Blake was intellectually able but politically inept. | He made some inept sexist comment.
ineptly adverb
ineptitude, ineptness noun [uncountable] inapt : inapt, unsuitable, inappropriate
infamous : notorious / adjective
famous or well-known for something bad: a notorious bandit
[+ for]: The region is notorious for its terrible snowstorms.
notoriously adverb : a notoriously inefficient company
famous, disgraceful
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infectious adjective
1 an infectious illness can be passed from one person to another, especially through the air you breathe : highly infectious: There seems to be a highly infectious type of flu going around.
2 someone who is infectious has an illness and could pass it to􀀆other people
3 infectious feelings or laughter spread quickly from one person to another: Her giggles were infectious and soon we were all laughing.
infectiously adverb
infectiousness noun [uncountable]􀀆: contagious, communicable
inflate : swell, expand
inflexible : rigid, unbending, stern1 adjective
1 strict in a very serious and often unpleasant way: a stern teacher | groups calling for sterner penalties for drug offences
2 stern look/expression/rebuke something that someone says or does that expresses disapproval
sternly adverb
sternness noun [uncountable] , resolute adjective
doing something in a very determined way because you have very strong beliefs, aims etc
irresolute
resolutely adverb : She resolutely resisted his amorous advances.
resoluteness noun , steadfast
inform : notify, acquaint
information : intelligence
ingenious : skillful, adroit, resourceful, inventive
ingenuous adjective
inexperienced, simple, trusting, and honest
ingenuously adverb
ingenuousness noun [uncountable]
disingenuous􀀆: frank, candid, open, naive
inherent* : natural, intrinsic adjective
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being part of the nature or character of someone or something: The job is of little intrinsic interest. | intrinsic goodness
[+ to]: problems that are intrinsic to the situation
intrinsically / 즟li/ adverb , built-in, innate, congenital adjective
1 a congenital medical condition or disease has affected someone since they were born: congenital abnormalities | congenital defect
2 existing as a part of your character and unlikely to change: his congenital inability to make decisions | a congenital liar
congenitally adverb , inborn
inhibit : restrain, prohibit, forbid
initial* : first, introductory, beginning, inception noun [singular] formal
the start of an organization or institution: a history of the Labour Party from its inception to the present day
initiate : begin, originate, commence, inaugurate
injury : harm, damage, detriment noun [uncountable] formal
the state of being harmed or damaged by something : to the detriment of (=resulting in harm or damage to something): He worked longer and longer hours, to the detriment of his marriage., impairment
innocent : pure, blameless, faultless, impeccable adjective
completely perfect and without any mistakes: Eliza had impeccable manners. | an impeccable performance
impeccably adverb : impeccably dressed, immaculate
innumerable : countless, numberless, numerous
inquire : ask, query1 noun [countable]
a question you ask to get information, or to check that something is true or correct: We will answer any queries by letter.
inquiry , enquiry noun
1 [countable] a question you ask in order to get information [+ about]: We're getting a lot of inquiries from travel companies about
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our new London-Rio service. | make inquiries: I don't know who sent the gift, but I'll make discreet inquiries. | be helping the police with their inquiries BrE (=be answering questions about a crime)
2 [uncountable] the act of asking questions in order to get information: On further inquiry, it emerged that Malcolm had not been involved in the campaign. | line of inquiry (=method of inquiry): No definite information yet - but we're following up a most promising line of inquiry.
3 enquiries the name of a service or office from which you can get information
4 [countable] an official process, in the form of a series of meetings, intended to find out why something happened
[+ into]: Local residents are calling for a public inquiry into􀀆the accident. | hold/conduct an inquiry: complaints that the inquiry is being conducted behind closed doors
5 scientific inquiry a process of trying to discover facts by scientific methods : investigation, scrutiny noun [uncountable]
careful and thorough examination of someone or something : careful/close scrutiny: Close scrutiny of the document showed it to be a forgery. | under scrutiny: Diana resented her private life being under such public scrutiny., research
inquisitive : inquiring, curious insane : lunatic, crazy insecure : unsafe, uncertain insolent adjective rude and not showing any respect: an insolent tone of voice | You insolent
child!
insolently adverb
insolence noun [uncountable] : rude, overbearing, contemptuous, arrogant
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instantly : immediately, instantaneously instrument : tool, implement insult : scorn, slander1 noun
1 [countable] a false spoken statement about someone that is intended to damage the good opinion that people have
2 [uncountable] the legal offence of making a statement of this􀀆kind: The doctor was awarded record damages against her partners for slander.
libel1 slanderer noun [countable] , abuse intact : uninjured, sound, unimpaired integrity noun [uncountable]
1 the quality of being honest and of always having high moral principles: a man of absolute integrity, with the highest moral standards
2 formal the state of being united as one complete thing: Removing the chapter destroys the integrity of the book. : uprightness, honesty, righteousness intensify : deepen, strengthen
intent1 noun [uncountable]
1 to all intents (and purposes) especially spoken almost completely: To all intents and purposes, their marriage is over.
2 formal what you intend to do; intention: She behaved foolishly but with good intent.
3 law the intention to do something illegal: arrested for loitering with
intent | intent to do sth: Jefferson was charged with intent to damage property.􀀆: intention, design intentional : deliberate, purposeful, designed, planned interfere* : intervene, intrude
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interpret : explain, explicate, elucidate verb [intransitive, transitive]
formal to explain something that is difficult to understand very clearly, by providing more information: His theory is further elucidated in a series of articles published between 1976 and 1980.
elucidation noun [countable, uncountable] elucidatory adverb
interrupt : suspend, intermit, stop, hinder intimate : close, familiar intolerable : unbearable intolerant : bigoted adjective having such strong opinions about race, religion, or politics that you are
unwilling to listen to anyone else's opinions: The new sergeant was a bigot, and viewed all black men with suspicion. | The decision not to allow disabled athletes to take part was seen as petty and bigoted., narrow, prejudiced, biased
intricate* : complex, elaborate1 adjective
containing a lot of small details or parts that are connected with each other in a complicated way: an elaborate mosaic consisting of thousands of tiny pieces | elaborate plan/notes/excuses etc (=carefully produced and full of details)
elaborately adverb : an elaborately carved wooden statue
elaborateness noun [uncountable] , complicated
intrude verb
1 [intransitive] to interrupt someone or become involved in their private affairs in an annoying and unwanted way, especially with the result that you upset or offend them: Would I be intruding if I came with you?
[+ into/on/upon]: It would be very insensitive to intrude on their private grief. : trespass1 verb [intransitive + on]
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1 to go onto someone's private land without their permission
2 old use to do something wrong; sin1 ?trespasser noun [countable]
trespass on sth phrasal verb [transitive] to unfairly use more than you should of someone else's time, help etc, for
your own advantage: It would be trespassing on their hospitality to accept any more from them., encroach, violate intuition : insight invaluable : priceless, precious invariable : constant, uniform, unchangeable involve : include, embrace, contain, comprise, entail verb [transitive]
1 to make it necessary to do something: Changing the computer system would entail substantial periods of re-training. | entail doing sth: My job entailed being on call 24 hours a day.
2 old use to arrange for your property to become the property of a particular person, especially your son, after your death
irritate : vex, fret1 verb fretted, fretting
1 [intransitive, transitive] especially spoken to feel worried about small or unimportant things, or to make someone feel like this: Don't you fret - everything will be all right.
[+ about/over]: Nicki was always fretting over something or other.
2 [transitive] to make something gradually smaller and weaker by rubbing
it over a long period of time
, anger, enrage, infuriate / verb [transitive]
to make someone extremely angry: It infuriates me to think of all the money
we've wasted.
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isolation : separation, segregation noun [uncountable]
the practice of keeping people of different races or religions apart and making them live, work, or study separately: The US Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that segregation in schools was unconstitutional.
integration
issue : point, problem, question
***** (J & K) *****
jam : pack, force, squeeze
jealous : envious
jeer verb [intransitive, transitive]
to laugh unkindly at someone to show that you strongly disapprove of them
[+ at]: of course they jeered at you - you lost the game, right?
jeer noun [countable]: hurtful jeers : scoff verb
1 [intransitive] to laugh at a person or idea, and talk about them in a way that shows you think they are stupid
[+ at]: They scoffed at the idea that anything could be changed.
2 [transitive] BrE informal to eat something very quickly: Who's scoffed all the cake?, mock, ridicule
jeopardy : risk, danger, peril
jest1 noun
1 in jest something you say in jest is intended to be funny, not serious
2 [countable] old-fashioned something that you say or do to amuse people;
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joke : joke join : link, fasten, attach, combine, connect, unite jolt1 verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to move suddenly and roughly, or to make someone or something move in this way: The car jolted and Rachel was thrown backwards.
2 [transitive] to give someone a sudden shock
* : shock, startle verb [transitive] to make someone suddenly surprised or slightly shocked: You startled me! I didn't hear you come in. | startled to see/hear/learn etc: I was startled to see Amanda there.
joyful : glad, delighted, buoyant, elated adjective
extremely happy and excited, especially because you have been successful: Elated by our victory, we sang all the way home., jubilant, jocund
joyless : cheerless, gloomy, dismal judicial adjective
1 connected with a court of law, judges, or their decisions: the judicial system
executive2 (1), legislative (2)
2 behaviour that is judicial is sensible and shows good judgment judicially adverb : judicious, juridical judicious : wise, sensible, reasonable jump : spring, bound, hop, leap junction : combination, union, joining, juncture justify : back, confirm, testify, bear out, warrant1 noun
1 [countable] written permission from a court of law allowing the police to take a particular action
[+ for]: The magistrate issued a warrant for his arrest. | search warrant
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(=permission to go into someone's house to look for
something)
also death warrant
2 [uncountable] formal good enough reason for doing something; justification
also unwarranted, verify,attest
keen : sharp, acute, poignant kill : slaughter, slay, assassinate, massacre kind : benign, humane, compassionate kindle : ignite, inflame, fire kinship : relationship
knack noun informal
1 [singular] a special skill or ability that you usually gain by practice: There's a knack to starting our lawn mower.
2 have a knack of doing sth to have a tendency to do something:􀀆He has a knack of saying the wrong thing.
: skill
***** (L) *****
labor : toil1 verb [intransitive always + adv/prep]
1 also toil away to work very hard for a long period of time [+ at/over]: I've been toiling away at this essay all weekend.
2 to move slowly and with great effort [+ up/through/against etc]: They toiled slowly up the hill. , work, exertion
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laborious adjective
1 laborious task/process/method etc a job or piece of work that􀀆is difficult and needs a lot of effort: the laborious task of collating all the evidence
2 seeming to be done slowly and􀀆with difficulty: laborious progress through the work
laboriously adverb
laboriousness noun [uncountable]􀀆: 1 arduous adjective
involving a lot of strength and effort: an arduous journey through the mountains
arduously adverb
arduousness noun [uncountable] , burdensome, difficult
2. diligent, industrious lack : deficiency, need, want, scarcity lag1 lagged, lagging verb
1 [intransitive] to move or develop more slowly than others: Britain was still lagging in the space race.
[+ behind]: Jessica always lags behind, looking in shop windows.
2 [transitive] BrE to cover water pipes etc with a special material to prevent heat from being lost: We've had the hot-water tank lagged. : linger verb [intransitive]
1 to stay somewhere a little longer, especially because you do not want to leave
[+ over/on etc]: They lingered over coffee and missed the last bus.
2 [always + adv/prep] to continue looking at or dealing with something for longer than is usual
[+ on/over etc]: Mike couldn't help letting his eyes linger on her face.
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3 also linger on to be slow to disappear: The taste lingers in your mouth.
4 also linger on to be dying slowly so that you stay alive for a long time although you are extremely weak: Horribly wounded he lingered on to die two years later.
lament1 verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to express feelings of great sadness about something: The nation lamented the death of its great war leader.
[+ over]: lamenting over her luck in love
2 [transitive] to express annoyance or disappointment about something you think is unsatisfactory or unfair: another article lamenting the decline of popular television
: bemoan, deplore, grieve, mourn lane : path, way, passage, alley noun [countable]
1 a narrow street between or behind buildings
2 right up/down sb's alley AmE very suitable for someone: The job sounds right up your alley.
also blin,􀀆
languid adjective
1 moving slowly and making very little effort, but in an attractive way: Sebastian left with a languid wave of the hand.
2 lazily slow and peaceful: a languid afternoon by the river languidly adverb : faint, weak, feeble, exhausted large : 1. huge, enormous, immense, gigantic, colossal,massive
2. vast, pompous adjective trying to make people think you are important, especially by using very formal and important sounding words: The principal gave
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a very pompous speech about `the portals of learning'. pompously adverb pompousness , pomposity noun [uncountable]
last : final, ultimate, conclusive, terminal latent adjective something that is latent is present but hidden, and may develop􀀆or become
more noticeable in the future: The virus remains latent
in the body for many years. | latent aggression latency noun [uncountable]􀀆: hidden, concealed, potential laud : praise, exalt, applaud laugh : giggle, chuckle verb [intransitive] to laugh quietly: What are you chuckling about? chuckle noun [countable], grin1 verb [intransitive] grinned, grinning
1 to smile widely: Grinning sheepishly, James admitted he was seeing Sue. [+ at]: Stop grinning at me, you stupid jackass! [+ with]: grinning with delight | grin from ear to ear (=grin very widely)􀀆
2 grin and bear it to accept and bear an unpleasant or difficult situation without complaining, usually because you realize there is nothing you can do to make it better, smile
lavish : expend, waste, squander lawful : legal, legitimate, valid
1 a valid ticket, document, or agreement can be used legally or􀀆is officially acceptable, especially for a fixed period of time or according to certain conditions: a valid passport | Your return ticket is valid for three months.
2 valid reason/argument/criticism etc a reason, argument etc that is based on what is true or sensible, and so should be accepted or treated in a serious way: His point about staff shortages was a valid one.
-validity / noun [uncountable]: I would question the validity of that statement.
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lazy : idle, indolent, slothful
lazy or not active slothfully adverb slothfulness noun [uncountable], sluggish
league : alliance, confederation, union lean : incline, bend leap : jump, bound, spring, vault
1 also vaults [plural] a room with thick walls and a strong door where money, jewels etc are kept to prevent them from being stolen or damaged
2 also vaults [plural] a room where people from the same family􀀆are buried, often under the floor of a church
3 a jump over something also pole vault
4 a roof or ceiling (1) that consists of several arches that are joined together, especially in a church hop
leave : quit, depart legacy noun [countable]
1 a situation that exists as a result of things that happened at an earlier time [+ of]: The civil wars in the region are largely a legacy of apartheid.
2 money or property that you receive from someone after they die: a legacy from her aunt
: tradition, culture, heritage, inheritance legend : fable, myth legitimate : legal, lawful lengthen : extend, stretch, prolong, protract lenient : mild, clement, merciful lessen : diminish, decrease, abate, dwindle level : even, flat, plain, horizontal
-136 -
liable adjective
1 be liable to do sth to be likely to do or say something or to􀀆behave in a particular way, especially because of a fault or natural tendency: The car is liable to overheat on long trips.
2 [not before noun] legally responsible for the cost of something [+ for]: Manufacturers are liable for any defects in the equipment.
3 likely to be affected by a particular kind of problem, illness etc [+ to]: You're more liable to injury when you don't get regular􀀆exercise.
4 law likely to be legally punished or forced to do something by law [+ to]: Anyone found trespassing is liable to a maximum fine of $100. [+ for]: All males between 18 and 60 are liable for military service.
: responsible, answerable, accountable liberal : tolerant adjective allowing people to do, say, or believe what they want without punishing
or criticizing them: Luckily, my parents were tolerant of my choice of music, broad-minded, magnanimous, generous􀀆
liberate : release, free, disengage verb
1 [transitive] to separate something from something else that is fastened to it or holding it : disengage yourself: Sally found it difficult to disengage herself from his embrace.
2 [intransitive, transitive] if you disengage part of a machine􀀆or if it disengages, you make it move away from another part that it was connected to: Disengage the gears when you park the car.
3 [intransitive] if two armies disengage, they stop fighting
?disengagement noun [uncountable] , deliver lift : raise, elevate, exalt, uplift light : illumination, radiance
-137 -
lighten : 1. illuminate, brighten, shine light-hearted : carefree, gay, joyful, merry likely : probable, possible limber1 verb
limber up phrasal verb [intransitive] to do gentle exercises in order to make your muscles stretch and move easily, especially when preparing for a race, competition etc
: flexible limit : bound, boundary link : bond, tie, connection liquid : fluid livelihood : living lively : energetic, active, vigorous, brisk adjective
1 quick and full of energy: a brisk walk
2 quick, practical and showing that you want to get things done􀀆quickly: She spoke in a brisk tone.
3 trade or business that is brisk is very busy, with a lot of products being sold
4 weather that is brisk is cold and clear briskly adverb briskness noun [uncountable]
load : burden loathe : abominate, detest, hate, abhor lodge : shelter, harbor, house, quarter lofty : high, elevated, tall, sublime1 adjective
1 excellent in a way that makes you feel extremely happy: We had a sublime view over the Mediterranean.
2 not caring or thinking at all about the result of your actions: sublime
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insensitivity to other people's feelings sublimely adverb sublimeness noun [uncountable] sublimity noun [uncountable]
loiter : linger, loaf lone : solitary, lonely, secluded, separate longing : desire, yearning, aspiration noun
1 [countable usually plural, uncountable] a strong desire to have or achieve something: Hannah has always had political aspirations. [+ of]: the aspirations of the working classes
2 [uncountable] the sound of air blowing out that happens when some consonants are pronounced, such as the /p/ in pin
loose : lax adjective
1 not strict or careful enough about standards of behaviour, work, safety etc; slack1 (1): lax security
2 muscles or arms or legs that are lax are not firm or strong and therefore
tend to hang loosely laxly adverb laxity noun [uncountable] laxness noun [uncountable] , slack lordly : grand, magnificent, majestic, lofty loud : noisy, clammy adjective feeling wet, cold, and sticky in a way that is unpleasant: clammy with sweat clammily adverb clamminess noun [uncountable], resounding, deafening lower : reduce, decrease, diminish, lessen loyal : faithful, devoted lubricious : slippery, smooth lucid adjective
-139 -
1 expressed in a way that is clear and easy to understand: a lucid and
accurate account of the day's events
2 a word meaning able to understand and think clearly, used especially about someone who is not always able to do this: In her more lucid moments the old lady would talk about her past.
lucidly adverb lucidity noun [uncountable]􀀆: clear, transparent, limpid,
intelligible, plain,obvious, distinct, evident ludicrous adjective completely unreasonable, stupid, or unsuitable; ridiculous: She􀀆turned up
wearing a ludicrous flowery hat. ludicrously adverb : The test was ludicrously easy. ludicrousness noun [uncountable]􀀆: ridiculous, comical, funny luminous : bright, shining, lucid, radiant, brilliant lure1 verb [transitive] to persuade someone to do something, especially something wrong, by
promising them something they want; tempt : lure sb into/to/away etc: I think he's trying to lure you away from Jerry. | prospectors lured to Alaska by the promise of gold
: allure, decoy, attract, tempt, seduce luster lustre BrE luster AmE noun [singular, uncountable]
1 an attractive shiny appearance : add/give lustre to: A little􀀆conditioner will give lustre to your hair.
2 the quality that makes something interesting or exciting : add/give luster
to: Arnold's singing will add lustre to the affair : brilliance, brightness, radiance lusty : hearty, vigorous, robust, stout luxurious : sumptuous, ornate / adjective
a lot of decoration, or too much decoration, especially with many
complicated details: a heavy ornate gold cigarette case ornately adverb ornateness noun [uncountable]
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***** (M) *****
mad : insane, lunatic, crazy madden verb [transitive usually passive] to make someone extremely angry or annoyed
: infuriate / verb [transitive] to make someone extremely angry: It infuriates me to think of all the money
we've wasted., irritate, provoke, annoy, enrage, anger magnificent : splendid, august, stately, majestic, imposing, grand magnify : enlarge, augment, amplify, exaggerate / / verb
[intransitive, transitive]
to make something seem better, more important etc than it really is: Sue says she's seen Jurassic Park twenty times, but I'm sure she's exaggerating. | exaggerate sth: exaggerating the pain to get our sympathy | greatly exaggerate: The extent of the damage was greatly exaggerated by the press.
exaggeratedly / adverb
magnitude* : 1. degree, extent, measure, proportion
2. volume, size, mass, bulk, amplitude maid : girl, maiden, lass noun [countable] ScotE & NEngE 1 a girl or young woman
2 a girlfriend -compare lad
main : chief, cardinal, prime, principal, leading, capital
-141 -
maintain** : 1. affirm / verb
1 [transitive] formal to state publicly that something is true:􀀆The general affirmed rumors of an attack.
2 [transitive] formal to strengthen a feeling, belief, or idea: By submitting to male values, they symbolically affirm male superiority.
3 [transitive] technical to promise to tell the truth in a court of law, but without mentioning God in the promise
affirmation noun [countable, uncountable]
, assert, hold, allege, contend, claim
2. keep, retain / maintenance : subsistence, livelihood, living majestic : stately, grand, august, imposing, splendid,magnificent make : manufacture, mold, shape maladroit adjective formal not good at dealing with people or problems ?maladroitly adverb ?maladroitness noun [uncountable]􀀆: unskillful, awkward, clumsy, inept malady /noun [countable]
1 formal something that is wrong with a system or organization: Public education suffers from the same malady as many other government programs.
2 old use an illness􀀆: disease, illness, ailment / / noun [countable]
an illness that is not very serious􀀆
malcontent : dissatisfied, discontented male : masculine / / adjective
1 belonging to men, done by men, or considered to be typical of men: a
-142 -
masculine approach to the problem | traditionally masculine subjects such as physics | a dark, masculine face
2 if a woman's appearance or voice is masculine, it is like a man's
3 belonging to the class of words for males: `Drake' is the masculine word for `duck'.
4 a masculine noun, pronoun etc belongs to a class of words that have different inflections from feminine or neuter words: The word for 'book' is masculine in French., manly
malice / / noun [uncountable]
1 the desire or intention to deliberately harm someone: There was no need for Jane to tell them -she did it out of sheer malice. | bear sb no malice (=not want to harm someone although they have behaved badly to you)
2 with malice aforethought law a criminal act that is done with malice aforethought is done in a carefully planned and deliberate way : ill will, spite1 noun
1 in spite of without being prevented by something; despite: We􀀆went out in spite of the rain. | in spite of the fact that: Kelly loved her husband in spite of the fact that he drank too much.
2 [uncountable] a feeling of wanting to hurt or upset people, for example because you are jealous or think you have been unfairly treated : out of spite (=because of spite): She broke it just out of spite. | pure/sheer spite (=spite and nothing else)
3 in spite of yourself if you do something in spite of yourself, you do
-143 -
it although you did not expect or intend to do it
, enmity, malevolence
malicious : malevolent, evil-minded maltreat : mistreat, abuse mammoth : huge, gigantic, immense, colossal
manage : conduct, control, direct, administer manager : administrator, executive, director maneuver AmE noun
1 [countable] a skilful or careful movement that you make, for example in order to avoid something or go through a narrow space: basic skiing manoeuvres
2 [countable, uncountable] a skilful or carefully planned action intended to deceive someone or achieve something: They tried by diplomatic maneuvers to obtain an agreement.
3 manoeuvres [singular] a military exercise like a battle done to train soldiers : on manoeuvres (=practising military exercises): The regiment is abroad on manoeuvres.
4 room for manoeuvre/freedom of manoeuvre the possibility of changing your plans or decisions: They haven't left us much freedom of manoeuvre.
: scheme, plot, design
manful : manly
mangle : maim, ruin, spoil, mar
mania : excitement, enthusiasm
manifest : evident, obvious, apparent, plain, clear, distinct
manifold : various, numerous
manly : manful, brave, bold, valiant
manner : mode, fashion, way, method, demean / / verb [transitive]
formal to do something that you think you are too good for: Don't demean yourself by taking that job. ?demeaning adjective : Cleaning the toilets was the most demeaning task
-144 -
at the camp., air,bearing, behavior many : numerous, abundant, myriad, innumerable margin : border, edge, rim mariner : sailor, seaman mark : note, importance, distinction, eminence, marriage : wedding, matrimony / noun [uncountable] formal the state of being married matrimonial adjective
marvelous : wonderful, extraordinary, amazing, astonishing, astounding, miraculous, surprising mask : veil, disguise mass : aggregation, collection, accumulation, pile massacre : slaughter, annihilate verb [transitive]
1 to destroy something or someone completely: stock piles of weapons that could annihilate mankind
2 to defeat someone easily and completely in a game, competition, or election: Tyson annihilated his opponent in the first round.
annihilation / noun [uncountable] , murder massive* : bulky, immense, huge, tremendous master : commander, chief, head matchless : unrivaled, unequaled, unparalleled matter : substance, material, stuff mature : ripe, complete, grown, fully-developed maxim / / noun [countable] a well-known phrase or saying, especially one that gives a rule􀀆for sensible
behaviour
: proverb, saying meager : scanty, deficient, insignificant, thin mean : 1 signify // verb [not in progressive]
[transitive] to represent, mean, or be a sign of something: Some tribes use special facial markings to signify status. | signify
-145 -
that: Recent changes in climate may signify that global warming is starting to have an effect.
[transitive] formal to make a wish, feeling, or opinion known by doing something : signify that: With a gesture Mr Bosch signified that the three representatives could depart. | signify sth (to sb): He turned away from her slightly to signify his indifference.
[intransitive] to be important enough to have an effect on something: These figures don't really signify in the overall results. , imply, express, humble, vulgar / adjective
1 remarks, jokes etc that are vulgar deal with sex in a very rude and offensive way
2 impolite and showing bad manners: vulgar habits
3 especially BrE not showing good judgment about what is beautiful or suitable: a vulgar display of wealth vulgarly adverb ignoble / adjective formal ignoble thoughts, feelings, or actions are ones that you should􀀆feel ashamed or embarrassed about ignobly adverb
measureless : limitless, boundless, immense, infinite meddlesome : interfering medicine : drug meditate : contemplate, reflect, ponder medium : means meet : encounter, confront, face melancholy : depressed, gloomy, despondent / adjective
unhappy and not hopeful: Gill had been out of work for a year and was getting very despondent.
despondency noun [uncountable]
-146 -
despondently adverb : He was staring despondently into the distance.,
dismal melt : fuse, dissolve, thaw menace1 // noun
1 [countable] something or someone that is dangerous [+ to]: hazardous chemicals that are a menace to public safety | That man's a menace to society!
2 [uncountable] a threatening quality or manner: There was menace in her eyes as she spoke.
3 [countable] a person, especially a child that is annoying or causes
trouble; nuisance􀀆: threaten, intimidate mend : repair, fix merciful : compassionate, clement, humane, sympathetic merciless : pitiless, relentless, inexorable / / adjective formal
an inexorable process cannot be stopped: the inexorable decline of Britain's manufacturing industry inexorably adverb : The story moves inexorably towards its tragic
conclusion. inexorability / / noun [uncountable]
mercy : compassion merit : worth, excellence, value merry : jolly, gay, mirthful, hilarious mess : confusion, muddle mighty : powerful, potent migrate : immigrate, emigrate, move mild : amiable, gentle, temperate, clement milestone* : important event mingle : mix, blend minor : secondary, subordinate detailed : precise miraculous : marvelous, wonderful, incredible mirth : gaiety, glee, merriment
-147 -
mischief : harm, injury, damage, hurt miser : niggardly /adjective
1 unwilling to spend money or be generous; stingy: The landlord was niggardly about repairs.
2 a niggardly gift, amount, salary etc is not worth very much and is given
unwillingly: niggardly wages niggard noun [countable] niggardliness noun [uncountable]
miserable : wretched adjective
1 very unhappy or ill: I lay in bed feeling thoroughly wretched.
2 [only before noun] making you feel annoyed or angry: What does the wretched woman want this time?
3 literary extremely bad or of very poor quality: wretched living conditions wretchedly adverb wretchedness noun [uncountable] , unhappy miserly : stingy, mean misery : wretchedness, distress, suffering, torture misgiving noun [countable, uncountable] a feeling of doubt, distrust, or fear about what might happen or about
whether something is right: She eyed Bert's pistol with misgiving. | have deep/serious misgivings: Opponents of nuclear energy have deep misgivings about its safety.
: apprehension / noun
1 [countable, uncountable] anxiety about the future, especially􀀆the worry that you will have to deal with something unpleasant or bad: a natural apprehension about being in hospital
2 [uncountable] the act of apprehending someone; arrest2
-148 -
3 [uncountable] old use understanding: our apprehension of the nature of God
, doubt, distrust, suspicion
mislead : misguide, misdirect mistake : error, blunder, slip mix : blend, moan : groan, mourn mock : ridicule, sneer moderate : reasonable, temperate, mild, average, usual modest : humble, decent modify : change, alter, vary moist : damp, humid, wet momentous : important, consequent, serious monetary : pecuniary
monotonous / adjective
boring because there is no variety: He was speaking in a low monotonous voice. | a monotonous factory job
monotonously adverb : The rain poured monotonously out of the grey sky
: tedious, dull, unvaried
monster : demon, devil
monstrous : tremendous, gigantic, prodigious, enormous,
immense, colossal
mood : disposition / noun formal
1 [countable] a particular type of character which makes someone more likely to behave or react in a certain way; temperament : have a cheerful/sunny disposition (=have a happy character and behave in a happy way) | people of a nervous disposition: The film is not suitable for people of a nervous disposition.
2 [uncountable] a tendency to behave in a particular way : have/show a disposition to do sth: Neither side shows the slightest disposition to compromise.
3 [countable] the position or arrangement of something in a particular place
-149 -
[+ of]: a map showing the disposition of the American forces
4 [countable, uncountable] law the act of formally giving property to someone
, temper moody : gloomy, sullen /adjective
1 silently showing anger or bad temper: a look of sullen resentment
2 literary sky or weather that is sullen is dark and unpleasant; gloomy (3)
sullenly adverb
sullenness noun [uncountable]
moral : ethical, righteous, virtuous moreover : besides, further, furthermore mortal : fatal, lethal, deadly mostly : generally, chiefly motif* : figure, pattern, design, device motion : gesture, movement, move motionless : fixed, still, stationary motive : motivation, inducement, incentive, stimulus, spur mount : ascend, climb, scale mourn : grieve, lament, bewail verb [transitive] literary to express deep sadness or disappointment about something, deplore􀀆
movement : drive, crusade1 // noun [countable]
1 one of a series of wars fought in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Christian armies trying to take Palestine from the Muslims
2 a determined attempt to change something because you think you are morally right
[+ against/for]: He seems to be running a one-man crusade against cigarette smoking.
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multitude : host, crowd, throng, mass, swarm murder : assassination murmur1 /verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to say something in a soft low voice which is difficult to hear clearly: He began stroking her hair and gently murmuring her name.
2 [intransitive] to complain to friends and people you work with, but not officially
[+ about/against]: Within the city there was much murmuring against the new ruler.
3 [intransitive] to make a soft, low sound: The wind murmured through the trees.
murmuring noun [countable, uncountable]: vague murmurings of discontent
: grumble, mumble, mutter muse : meditate, ponder, contemplate, deliberate, brood mute : silent, dumb, still mutiny : revolt, rebellion, uprising, rebel mutual : reciprocal
***** (N) *****
naive : ingenuous, candid, downright naked : nude, bare, stripped narrow-minded : intolerant / adjective not willing to accept ways of thinking and behaving that are different from
your own
[+ of]: intolerant of other people's political beliefs ?intolerantly adverb ?intolerance noun [uncountable]: nationalistic rivalry and racial
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intolerance
, illiberal nasty adjective
1 BEHAVIOUR nasty behaviour or remarks are extremely unkind and􀀆unpleasant; malicious: a nasty temper | That's a nasty thing to say! | There's a nasty streak in her character. | be nasty to (=treat someone in an unkind way): Don't be so nasty to your mum. | get/turn nasty especially BrE (=suddenly start behaving in a threatening way): Don't tease the dog. He might turn nasty.
2 SIGHT/SMELL ETC having a bad appearance, smell, taste etc: The medicine tastes nasty, but it works. | cheap and nasty: cheap and nasty furniture
3 nasty illness/cut/wound etc an illness etc that is severe or very painful: a nasty cut on the head
4 EXPERIENCE/SITUATION a nasty experience, feeling or situation is unpleasant: nasty weather | It gave me a nasty shock. | I have a nasty suspicion that he's going to make us pay for everything. | leave a nasty taste in the mouth (=make you feel upset or angry afterwards): When you feel you've been cheated, it always leaves a nasty taste in the mouth.
5 OFFENSIVE morally bad or offensive; obscene (1): nasty language | You've got a nasty mind.
6 a nasty piece of work BrE someone who is dishonest, violent, or likely to cause trouble
nastily adverb
nastiness noun [uncountable]􀀆: filthy, dirty, foul, impure, polluted
native : inborn, inherent, natural, innate, congenital adjective
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1 a congenital medical condition or disease has affected someone since they were born: congenital abnormalities | congenital defect
2 existing as a part of your character and unlikely to change: his congenital inability to make decisions | a congenital liar ?congenitally adverb
nearly : almost, approximately, well-nigh neat : orderly, congenital adjective
1 a congenital medical condition or disease has affected someone since they were born: congenital abnormalities | congenital defect
2 existing as a part of your character and unlikely to change: his congenital inability to make decisions | a congenital liar congenitally adverb, tidy, smart
necessary : essential, indispensable, requisite, vital neglect : disregard, ignore, overlook negligence* : carelessness negligible : unimportant negotiate : treat, bargain nervous : excitable, uneasy / adjective
1 nervous, anxious, and unable to relax because you think something bad might happen: Katie felt uneasy about what she had done. nervous
2 an uneasy period of time is one when people have agreed to stop fighting or arguing, but which is not really calm: An uneasy peace descended on the area.
3 not comfortable, peaceful, or relaxed: She eventually fell into an uneasy
sleep. | an uneasy conscience uneasily adverb uneasiness noun [uncountable]
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noble : lofty, honorable, dignified, imposing, stately notable : noteworthy, noticeable, remarkable, extraordinary, conspicuous / / adjective
1 someone or something that is conspicuous is very easy to notice, especially because they are different from everything or everyone else around them: I felt very conspicuous in my suit - everyone else was in jeans.
2 unusually good, bad, skilful etc; remarkable: The campaign had been a conspicuous success.
3 conspicuous by your absence used to say that people noticed that you were not in the place you should have been inconspicuous
conspicuously adverb conspicuousness noun [uncountable] , eminent, distinguished note : eminence, distinction, repute, celebrity, reputation notice : information, intelligence notify : inform, acquaint notion : opinion, view nourish : nurture, breed novel : 1. new, fresh
2. rare, unusual, strange numberless : adj. innumerable, numerous, myriad1 // adjective [only before noun] literary too many to count: Myriad bright stars shone in the sky above.
, countless,untold, infinite nurse : v. tend, attend nurture : v. nurse nutrition : n. nourishment
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***** (O) *****
obedient : submissive, docile / / adjective quiet and easily controlled: a docile child docilely adverb docility / noun [uncountable]
object* : protest, remonstrate /verb [intransitive]
formal to tell someone that you strongly disapprove of something they have said or done
[+ with/against]: They only stopped teasing after Evans remonstrated with them.
remonstrative / adjective
objective : unprejudiced, unbiased, impartial, fair obligation : requirement, duty, responsibility oblige : require, compel, force, coerce verb [transitive]
to force someone to do something they do not want to do by threatening them : coerce sb into doing sth: The rebels coerced the villagers into hiding them from the army.
obscure1 adjective
1 not at all well known and usually not very important: an obscure poet | The exact origin of the paisley design is obscure.
2 difficult to understand: obscure legal phrases obscurely adverb : unclear, uncertain, ambiguous, indistinct, blur1 / noun [singular]
1 [countable] a shape that you cannot see clearly: Everything's a blur without my glasses. | the blur of headlights in the distance
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2 an unclear memory of something: The events of that day gradually became a blur in her mind.
observance : fulfilling / adjective
a job, relationship etc that is fulfilling makes you feel satisfied because it allows you to use all your skills and qualities: A career in nursing still provides one of the most fulfilling of jobs.
, performance observation : noticing, perceiving, watching observe : 1. perceive, notice, watch
2. comply / / verb [intransitive] formal to do what you have to do or are asked to do [+ with]: Failure to comply with the regulations will result in􀀆prosecution. also compliance , conform, follow, fulfill obstacle : obstruction, hindrance, impediment, interference,block obstinate /'adjective 1 unreasonably refusing to change your ideas of behaviour, even though people try to persuade you: Harry was obstinate and wouldn't admit he was wrong. | a sulky, obstinate child | an obstinate refusal to face facts
2 [only before noun] difficult to deal with or get rid of: strong enough to remove the most obstinate stains | an obstinate cough obstinately adverb
: unyielding, stubborn, inflexible, headstrong,dogged obstruct : block, stop, bar, hinder, barricade, impede / / verb [transitive] to prevent something from happening in the normal way, or make it happen more􀀆slowly: Storms at sea impeded our progress.
obtain* : get, acquire, procure, secure, gain, achieve, attain,􀀆earn, win obvious : plain, manifest, evident, clear, apparent, distinct
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occult : mysterious, secret, unknown, mystical occupation : calling, trade, business, profession, vocation, pursuit occupy : capture, seize occur : happen, befall occurrence : event, incident, affair odd : unusual, strange, weird, queer, quaint, eccentric1 / adjective
1 behaving or appearing in a way that is unusual and different from most people: students dressed in eccentric clothing | an eccentric old woman
2 technical eccentric circles do not have the same centre point􀀆concentric eccentrically / adverb ,bizarre
odor : smell, fragrance, scent, perfume offend : irritate, annoy, vex, provoke, gall1 /l/ noun
1 have the gall to do sth to do something rude and unreasonable􀀆that most people would be too embarrassed to do: Being a Tory politician, he still had the gall to be interviewed on TV and claim all the credit.
2 [uncountable] old-fashioned anger and hate that will not go away
3 [uncountable] old use bile
4 [countable] a swelling on a tree or plant caused by damage from insects or infection
5 [countable] a painful place on an animal's skin, caused by something
rubbing against it, fret, displease
offense : transgress / verb [intransitive, transitive] formal
to do something that is against the rules of social behaviour or against
a moral principle: Those who have transgressed against
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custom must be punished.
transgressor noun [countable]
transgression noun [countable, uncountable] , sin, misdemeanor, crime, felony
offensive : displeasing, irritating, unpleasant, disgusting,
disagreeable, annoying
offer : present, proffer, tender1 /adjective
1 MEAT/VEGETABLES easy to cut and eat, especially because they have been well cooked: tender beef
tough1 (5)
2 PART OF YOUR BODY a tender part of your body is painful if someone touches it: My arm is still tender where I bruised it.
3 GENTLE gentle and careful in a way that shows love: Sam's voice was full of tender concern. | a tender look
4 tender loving care usually spoken sympathetic treatment and a lot of attention
5 tender blossoms/plants etc plants etc that are easily damaged􀀆
6 tender age humorous or literary the time when you are young or inexperienced: I don't know that your jokes are suitable for someone of my tender age! | at the tender age of: Nicholas was sent to boarding school at the tender age of seven.
tenderly adverb
tenderness noun [uncountable]
old : aged, elderly, ancient, antiquated, antique old-fashioned : outmoded, antique, obsolete / / adjective no longer useful because something newer and better has been invented:
obsolete weapons | render sth obsolete (=make it obsolete): Current production methods will soon be
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rendered obsolete., archaic􀀆
ominous : foreboding
omnipresent : ubiquitous / adjective formal or humorous
seeming to be everywhere: We were tormented in the outback by the ubiquitous Australian fly.
ubiquitously adverb
ubiquity noun [uncountable]
only : sole, single, unique operate : work, manage operation : transaction noun formal
1 [countable] a business deal: The bank charges a fixed rate for each transaction. | financial transactions
2 [uncountable] the process of doing business: the transaction of his public duties
3 transactions [plural] discussions that take place at the meetings of a society, or a written record of these, business, affair􀀆
operative : effective, efficient, effectual opponent : adversary, antagonist, contestant, enemy, foe opportune : timely, seasonable opportunity : chance, occasion
oppose verb [transitive]
1 to disagree with something such as a plan or idea and try to prevent it from happening or succeeding: Congress is continuing to oppose the President's healthcare budget. | be opposed to sth: Most of us are opposed to the death penalty.
2 to fight or compete against another person or group in a battle, competition, or election: He is opposed by two other candidates.
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: resist, object opposite : contrary, reverse oppress : maltreat, persecute oppression : tyranny // noun
1 [uncountable] unfair and strict control over someone: He longed to escape from the tyranny of his aunt.
2 [countable, uncountable] government by one person or a small group that has gained power unfairly and uses it cruelly
3 the tyranny of fashion/the clock etc the way that fashion etc limits people's freedom to do things the way they want to do
4 [countable often plural] a cruel or unfair action that limits􀀆someone's
freedom: the tyrannies of Louis XVI's court , despot / / noun [countable] someone such as a ruler who used power in a cruel and unfair way despotic / adjective despotically / adverb , persecution oral : verbal, spoken, vocal orbit : path, course ordeal // noun [countable] a terrible or painful experience [+ of]: the ordeal of having your child kidnapped | it is an ordeal to do
sth: Some people find it an ordeal to appear before the TV camera.
: trial, test order : direction, mandate1 / / noun
1 [countable] the right and power to carry out certain policies, which is given to a government or elected official by the people who voted for them : mandate to do sth: The President was elected with a clear mandate to tackle violent crime. | seek a mandate: They are seeking a mandate for􀀆tax reforms.
2 [countable] an official command given to a person or organization to do
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something: an envoy carrying out the Archbishop's mandate
3 [countable, uncountable] the power given to one country to govern another country, command orderly : regular, systematic / adjective based on carefully organized methods; thorough: The way they've􀀆collected
their data is not very systematic. | a systematic search of the building systematically / adverb , methodical
ordinary : common, usual, customary, accustomed, habitual organic : systematic organize : construct, form, constitute original : inventive, creative originate : emanate, initiate ornament : decorate, adorn, embellish / verb [transitive]
1 to make a story or statement more interesting by adding details that are not true: She gave an embellished account of what had happened.
2 to make something more beautiful by adding decorations [+ with]: The ceiling was embellished with cherubs. embellishment noun [countable, uncountable]
outbreak* : 1. epidemic, plague, rash.
2. explosion, burst, outburst, gust1 / / noun [countable] 1 a sudden strong movement of wind: A sudden gust of wind blew the door shut.
2 a sudden strong feeling of anger, excitement etc: A gust of rage swept through him.
, eruption outcome : result, consequence outdo : surpass, excel outlaw : criminal
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outline : : contour, silhouette sketch, draft, block out, rough in, rough out outlive // verb [transitive]
1 to live longer than someone else: She outlived her husband by􀀆twenty years.
2 to continue to exist after something else has ended or disappeared: The military regime has outlived its statutory term by three years. | outlive its usefulness (=become no longer useful): As a commuter service the Seacombe Ferry had outlived its usefulness.
: survive outrage1 /noun
1 [uncountable] a feeling of great anger and shock: The injustice of the situation filled him with a sense of outrage.
2 [countable] a very cruel, violent, and shocking action or event [+ against]: These terrorist attacks are an outrage against society.
: insult, abuse, maltreat, injure, offend
outspoken : frank, open candid
outstanding : prominent, eminent, conspicuous, striking
overcome : conquer, defeat, subdue, crush, surmount
overlook : disregard, neglect, ignore
overpower : overcome, overwhelm, vanquish / / verb [transitive]
literary to defeat someone or something completely
, subjugate,subdue, crush, defeat, conquer, beat oversee : supervise, superintend, survey1 noun [countable]
1 a set of questions that you ask a large number of people in order to find out about their opinions or behaviour : to carry out/conduct a survey (=do a survey): a recent survey conducted by Manchester university into children's attitudes to violence on television
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2 an examination of a house or other building done especially for someone who wants to buy it
3 an examination of an area of land in order to make a map of it
4 a general description or report about a particular subject or􀀆situation: a survey of modern English literature
, watch, overlook oversight : mistake, blunder, slip, error overthrow : upset, overturn, subvert / verb [transitive] formal
1 to try to destroy the power and influence of a government or established system etc: attempts to subvert the democratic process
2 to destroy someone's beliefs or loyalty
overwhelm : overpower, crush own : acknowledge, admit, allow, recognize
***** (P) *****
pace : : n. step, gait / noun [singular] the way someone walks: He moved off again with a slow shuffling gait.
,walk, step pacific : peaceful, calm, tranquil, quiet pacify : adj. calm, tranquilize, assuage / verb [transitive] literary to make an unpleasant feeling less painful or severe; relieve (1):
Nothing could assuage his guilt. , ameliorate verb [transitive] formal to make something better: measures to ameliorate working􀀆conditions
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amelioration noun [uncountable]􀀆
pack : package, bundle, parcel pact: an electoral pact to keep out the Fascists also suicide noun [countable] a formal agreement between two groups, nations, or people, especially to
help each other or fight together against an enemy : make/sign a pact: The two countries signed a non-aggression pact. | a pact to do sth : compact, contract, bond pain : suffering, distress, torture, torment, pang / noun [countable]
a sudden feeling of pain, sadness etc [+ of]: pangs of jealousy | hunger pangs, ache painstaking /adjective very careful and thorough: fourteen months of painstaking investigation painstakingly adjective : assiduous / adjective formal very careful to make sure that something is done properly or completely:
an assiduous collector of folk songs assiduously adverb assiduity noun [uncountable] , diligent pale : pallid adjective
1 unusually or unhealthily pale: Paul was still pallid and sick.
2 boring, without any excitement pallidly adverb pallidness noun [uncountable] , wan / / adjective especially literary looking pale, weak, or tired: She gave a wan smile. wanly adverb
panic : terror, fright, alarm pant : gasp parallel : correspond verb [intransitive]
1 if two things or ideas correspond, the parts or information in one relate
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to the parts or information in the other: The two halves
of the document did not correspond.
[+ with/to]: The numbers correspond to distinct points on the map.
2 to be very similar or the same as something else
[+ to]: The French `baccalaur ?t' roughly corresponds to British `A-levels'.
3 to write letters to someone and receive letters from them: For the next three years they corresponded regularly.
[+ with]: She stopped corresponding with him after the death of􀀆her mother.
paralyse BrE paralyze AmE verb [transitive]
1 to make someone lose the ability to move part or all of their􀀆body, or to feel anything in it: Mrs Burrows had been paralysed by a stroke.
2 be paralysed to be unable to move, or to deal with a situation, because you are frightened or surprised: She was paralysed by shock and disbelief.
3 to make something unable to operate normally: The electricity failure
paralysed the city.􀀆: benumb paramount : supreme, chief, principal pardon : forgive, absolve verb [transitive] formal
1 to say publicly that someone is not guilty or responsible for􀀆something : absolve sb from/of sth: They were absolved of all responsibility for the accident.
2 [often passive] to forgive someone for something they have done wrong , condone / verb [transitive] to accept or forgive behaviour that most people think is morally wrong:
I cannot condone the use of violence under any circumstances.
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, acquit / verb acquitted, acquitting
1 [transitive usually passive] to give a decision in a court of􀀆law that someone is not guilty of a crime: All the defendants were acquitted. | acquit sb of sth: She was acquitted of murder.
2 acquit yourself well/honourably to do something well, especially something difficult that you do for the first time in front of other people
partake : participate, share partial : biased, prejudiced, unfair partisan : adherent, supporter, follower, disciple partition : divide, separate, apportion passage : way, route, path, lane, thoroughfare /noun
1 [countable] the main road through a place such as a city or village: The motel was off the main thoroughfare.
2 no thoroughfare a written sign used to tell people that they cannot go on a particular road or path
passion : zeal, ardor, fervor passionate : ardent, vehement, zealous, enthusiastic, earnest passive : inactive, inert pastime /noun [countable] something that you do because you find it enjoyable or interesting: Reading
was her favourite pastime. : diversion / / noun
1 [countable] something that stops you from paying attention to􀀆what you are doing or what is happening : create a diversion (=deliberately take someone's attention away from something else): Some of the prisoners created a diversion while Riggs climbed the wall.
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2 [countable, uncountable] a change in the direction or purpose􀀆of something [+ of]: the massive diversion of resources into the military budget
3 [countable] formal an activity that you do for pleasure: The cinema is always a pleasant diversion.
4 [countable] especially BrE a different road for traffic to travel on when the usual road cannot be used, entertainment, recreation􀀆
patch : mend, repair, fix pathetic / adjective
1 something or someone that is pathetic is so useless, unsuccessful, or badly done that they annoy you: You're pathetic! Here, let me do it. | It's a pretty pathetic computer, basically. | Vic made a pathetic attempt to apologise.
2 making you feel pity or sympathy: a pathetic sight pathetically adverb : pitiable, touching, moving patience : endurance, fortitude // noun [uncountable] courage shown when you are in great pain or experiencing a lot of trouble:
She bore her illness with great fortitude. , perseverance noun [uncountable] approving determination to keep trying to achieve something in spite of difficulties:
Beth has shown great perseverance in trying to overcome her handicap.
patron : protector, supporter, advocate pause : rest, suspension / noun
1 [uncountable] the act of officially stopping something from continuing for a period of time [+ of]: EC sanctions included suspension of the 1980 trade agreement and import limits on textiles.
2 [countable] the removal of someone from a team, job, school etc for a
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period of time, especially to punish them: Sean McCarthy is set to return to football after a three match suspension.
3 [uncountable] equipment fixed to the wheels of a vehicle to make it more comfortable on roads that are not smooth
4 [countable] technical a liquid mixture consisting of very small pieces of solid material that are contained in the liquid but have not combined with it
colloid
5 [uncountable] the act of hanging something from something else:
suspension cables, interruption, break, halt peaceable : pacific, peaceful, amicable, amiable, mild peaceful : tranquil, placid, serene, calm peak : top, rest, summit, acme, pinnacle peculiar : strange, odd, queer, eccentric1 / / adjective
1 behaving or appearing in a way that is unusual and different from most people: students dressed in eccentric clothing | an eccentric old woman
2 technical eccentric circles do not have the same centre point􀀆compare concentric
eccentrically adverb , bizarre, extraordinary, unique pecuniary : monetary, financial pedestrian : walker peek / / verb [intransitive] to look quickly at something, especially something that you are􀀆not supposed
to see: The children were peeking from behind the wall. peep1
peek noun [countable]: I noticed Diane taking a quick peek at herself in the mirror.
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: peep1 / / verb [intransitive]
1 to look at something quickly and secretly, especially through a hole [+ into/through etc]: I caught him peeping through the keyhole.􀀆
2 [always + adv/prep] if something peeps from somewhere, it is just possible to see it [+ through/from etc]: The sun peeped briefly through the clouds. peek, peer2, peer1 / / noun [countable]
1 someone of the same age, social class etc as you: Children compete to win the approval of their peers. | The jury system gives you the right to be judged by your peers.
2 a member of the British nobility, who has the right to sit in􀀆the House of Lords
, pry / verb present participle pryingpast tense pried
1 [intransitive] to try to find out details about someone else's private life in an impolite way: I don't wish to pry, but is it true that you're having problems at home?
2 [transitive always + adv/prep] especially AmE to force something open, or force it away from something else; prize3 (2) : pry sth open/away etc: We finally managed to pry open the door with a screwdriver.
3 away from prying eyes in private, where people cannot see: I'd like to show you something, away from prying eyes.
peer : equal, mate, match penetrate : pierce, permeate penetrating : piercing, sharp, acute, keen, shrewd / / adjective
1 good at judging what people or situations are really like, especially in a way that makes you successful in business, politics
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etc: Martin's a shrewd judge of character. | a shrewd businesswoman
2 well judged and likely to be right: At a shrewd guess, I'd say Henry is going to leave his job. | have a shrewd idea (=have an opinion about something that is probably correct)
shrewdly adverb : where you jealous of her? ?asked Sara shrewdly. shrewdness noun [uncountable]
pensive : thoughtful, meditative, reflective perceive : see, discern, notice, apprehend, understand perform : execute, discharge, fulfill, accomplish, achieve peril : risk, jeopardy, danger, hazard period : age, era, epoch
periphery / / noun
1 [countable usually singular] the outer area or edge that surrounds a place [+ of]: a residential area on the periphery of the city outskirts
2 be on the periphery to be only slightly involved in a group or activity: extremists on the periphery of the animal rights movement
: edge, border, fringe, margin, rim, verge perish : die, decay, wither, disappear, vanish permanent : lasting, constant, perpetual, everlasting permission : leave, permit, allowance permit : allow, let perpetual : everlasting, permanent, enduring, eternal, ceaseless, infinite perplex : confuse, puzzle persecute : oppress, harass / / verb [transitive]
1 to treat someone unfairly by threatening them or being continuously unpleasant to them: Black teenagers are being constantly harassed by the police.
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2 to annoy someone by continually interrupting them: Stop harassing me will you! I'm trying to work!
3 to continually attack an enemy , molest / / verb [transitive]
1 to attack or harm someone, especially a child, by touching them in a sexual way or trying to have sex with􀀆them: men who molest young boys
abuse2 (2)
2 old-fashioned to attack and physically harm someone: a dog that was
molesting sheep molester noun [countable] molestation noun [uncountable] , afflict persevere : persist, endure persuade : induce, entice /I/ verb [transitive] to persuade someone to do something by offering them something if they will
do it : entice sb away/across/down etc: He tried to entice the dog away from its post by the door. | entice sb: Banks are offering low interest rates in an attempt to entice new customers.
enticement noun [countable, uncountable]
pertinent /adjective formal directly concerned with something that is being considered: relevant: The
investigator asked several highly pertinent questions. [+ to]: Your remarks are not pertinent to today's discussion. pertinently adverb pertinence noun [uncountable] also impertinent
: appropriate, suitable, fit, proper pervade : permeate, penetrate petition : entreat, supplicate / / verb [intransitive, transitive] literary
to ask or pray for help from someone in power or from God
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supplication / noun [uncountable]: Paolo knelt and bowed his head in supplication., beg, solicit
picturesque : colorful, scenic, beautiful
piece : segment, scrap, shred1 // noun
1 [countable] a small thin piece that is torn or cut roughly from something
[+ of]: a shred of cloth | shreds of dried coconut | tear/rip/cut sth to shreds: Jackie was so mad with Tom she tore all his letters to shreds.
2 in shreds
a) torn in many places: My scarf was in shreds after the dog had played with it. b) completely ruined: Simon went home with his career in shreds. 3 [singular] a very small amount : not a shred of proof/evidence/doubt (=not at all): There's not a shred of evidence to convict him.
, fragment pierce : penetrate pile : heap up, accumulate, assemble, amass, collect pilgrim /'/ noun [countable] someone who travels a long way to a holy place for a religious reason:
pilgrims at Lourdes􀀆: wanderer pillar : column, prop1 // verb propped, propping [transitive always
+ adv/prep] to support something by leaning it against something, or by putting something else under, next to, or behind it : prop sth against/on: He propped his bike against a tree. | prop sth open: Give me something to prop the door open.
prop sth up phrasal verb [transitive]
1 to prevent something from falling by putting something against it or under it: The builders are trying to prop up the crumbling walls of the church.
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2 if a government props up another government it helps it with financial or military support so that it can continue to exist
3 prop yourself up to stand or sit straight by leaning against something
pious : devout, reverent, religious piquant / / adjective
1 having a pleasantly sharp taste or flavour: a piquant tomato sauce
2 interesting and exciting; intriguing: The disappearance of the letter
made the situation all the more piquant. piquantly adverb piquancy noun [uncountable]􀀆: sharp, pungent
pitiful : pitiable, pathetic, piteous pitiless : merciless, cruel, ruthless, implacable, relentless,inexorable pity : sympathy, compassion
placid / / adjective
1 a placid person or animal does not easily get angry or excited: He had a placid nature, well-suited to teaching.
2 calm and peaceful: The lake was placid and still under the moonlight. placidly adverb : Dobbs stood at the entrance, placidly smoking􀀆his pipe. placidity / / noun [uncountable]
: calm, peaceful, tranquil, serene, quiet, undisturbed plague : epidemic, outbreak plain : clear, distinct, lucid, unambiguous, unequivocal, intelligible, evident, manifest, obvious, apparent platform : stage, scaffold / / noun [countable]
1 a structure built next to a building or high wall, for workmen to stand on while they build, repair, or paint the building
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2 a structure with a raised stage used for killing criminals by hanging them or cutting off their heads
3 AmE a structure that can be moved up and down to help people work on high
buildings; cradle1 (5) BrE , scaffolding, pulpit /noun [countable] a raised, boxlike structure at the front of a church, from which the priest
speaks
plead : entreat, beg, supplicate, reason, defend plight : predicament, dilemma plot : scheme, intrigue1 / verb
1 [transitive] if something intrigues you, you are very interested by it, especially because it seems strange or mysterious: I was intrigued by his request.
2 [intransitive] literary to make secret plans to harm someone or make them lose their position of power: While King Richard was abroad, the barons had been intriguing against him., conspiracy
plunge : immerse, submerge, dip pointed : sharp, piercing, severe, keen poison : venom polish : brighten, smooth, shine, refine, gloss polished : smooth, glossy, shiny polite : courteous, civil, genteel pollute : dirty, contaminate, corrupt ponder : meditate, reflect, deliberate, muse1 / verb
1 [intransitive] to think carefully about something for a long time
[+ on/over]: He lit a cigarette and sat musing over the problems of the world.
2 [transitive] to say something in a thoughtful way, especially􀀆a􀀆question that you are trying to find the answer to: "I wonder why
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she was killed," mused Poirot. musingly adverb , weigh, contemplate
popular : common, prevailing, current, general, prevalent port : harbor, haven portion : part, section, segment, fragment portray : picture, depict, represent, describe pose : state, assert, propound / / verb [transitive]
formal to suggest an idea, explanation etc for other people to consider
position : station, place, locality, site positive : explicit, express, certain, definite, precise post : column, pillar, pole postpone : defer, delay, procrastinate, adjourn posture1 // noun
1 [countable, uncountable] the position you hold your body in when you sit or stand: Poor posture can lead to muscular problems in later life.
2 [singular] the way you behave or think in a particular situation: the administration's posture towards China
: pose, attitude potent : powerful, mighty, influential potential : possible, latent /'/ adjective something that is latent is present but hidden, and may develop􀀆or become
more noticeable in the future: The virus remains latent in the body for many years. | latent aggression latency noun [uncountable]
potentially* : possibly practicable : workable, achievable, attainable practice : custom, habit praise : laud, commend, admire, exalt pray1 verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to speak to God in order to ask for help or
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give thanks: They went to the mosque to pray.
[+ for]: Let us pray for peace.
[+ to]: Martha prayed to God every night. | pray sth: 밆ear Lord, show
me my duty, ?she prayed.
2 [intransitive, transitive] to wish or hope very strongly that􀀆something will happen : pray that: Paul was praying that no one had noticed his absence.
[+ for]: We're praying for a fine day tomorrow.
: entreat, supplicate, beg, beseech, implore, petition
precaution / noun [countable usually plural]
something you do in order to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from
happening: Fire precautions were neglected. | elaborate
precautions to avoid detection
[+ against]: You should save your work often as a precaution against computer failure. | take the precaution of doing sth: I took the precaution of insuring my camera. : prudence / / noun [uncountable]
a sensible and careful attitude that makes you avoid unnecessary risks
precious : valuable, dear, invaluable, priceless precise : definite, correct, strict, accurate predict : foretell, prophesy1 /verb prophesies, prophesying, prophesied [intransitive, transitive]
to use religious or magical knowledge to say what will happen in the future; foretell
[+ that]: The soothsayer prophesied that the war would be won. | prophesy who/what/how etc: He even prophesied how the crops would fail.
, foresee, forecast predominant : prevailing, prevalent, dominant predominate* : prevail, outweigh, surpass, dominate preeminent : conspicuous, noticeable, outstanding, eminent, celebrated, distinguished prejudice1 /'/ noun
-176 -
1 [countable, uncountable] an unreasonable dislike and distrust􀀆of people who are different from you in some way, especially because of their race, sex, religion etc: Women still have to face a great deal of prejudice in the workplace.
[+ against]: Prejudice against black people is common in many parts of America. | racial/sexual prejudice (=prejudice against people who belong to a different race or sex): victims of racial prejudice
2 [uncountable] to the prejudice of formal having a harmful effect or influence on something else: Harry continued to smoke, to the prejudice of his health.
3 without prejudice law without harming or affecting something else
: bias, partiality preliminary : introductory, preparatory / adjective
1 [only before noun] done in order to get ready for something: preparatory talks to clear the way for a peace settlement
2 preparatory to formal before something else and in order to prepare for it: The partners held several meetings preparatory to signing the agreement.
premium : bonus, gift, reward
preoccupied / adjective
thinking about something a lot, with the result that you do not􀀆pay attention to other things: I tried to speak to Bella, but she seemed a little preoccupied. [+ with]: Rod's completely preoccupied with all the wedding preparations at the moment. : absorbed, engross / / verb [transitive]
1 if something engrosses you, you are extremely interested in it: Their revolutionary talk engrossed him, and he listened intently.
-177 -
2 engross yourself in/with to become very interested in something and spend a lot of time doing it
prescribe : ordain /verb [transitive]
1 to officially make someone a priest or religious leader: Desmond Tutu was ordained in 1960. | ordain sb (as) sth: Paulson was ordained deacon.
also ordination
2 formal to order that something should happen: a duty ordained by God [+ that]: The King ordained that a feast should be prepared.
, direct, dictate, decree
presently : immediately, directly, shortly, forthwith, soon preserve : keep, conserve, shelter, shield, protect prestige : reputation, influence, distinction presume : assume, suppose pretend : feign, affect, assume
pretence also pretense AmE / / noun [singular, uncountable]
1 an attempt to pretend that something is true
[+ that]: Susie abandoned the pretence that she didn't want to go to the party. | keep up the pretence of being/doing sth: How long are you going to keep up the pretence of being ill? | under (the) pretence of sth: John waited for her under pretence of tying his shoelaces. | make a pretence of doing sth: Tollitt made no pretence of hiding his surprise.
2 under/on false pretences if you do something under false pretences, you do it by pretending that something is true: Mellors obtained credit under false pretences.
3 no pretence to superiority/faith/education etc no claim that you are superior1 (4) etc: a simple man, with little pretence to education
-178 -
: pretext, excuse prevail* : prevalent, predominate, dominant, current, general, common prevent : hinder, obstruct, hamper, impede, thwart1 / / verb [transitive]
formal to prevent someone from doing what they are trying to do: My plans were thwarted by the intervention of the police. | thwarted ambition
, interrupt previous : prior, earlier, former, preceding pride : conceit // noun
1 [uncountable] an attitude that shows you have too high an opinion of your own abilities or importance; conceitedness: The conceit of the woman - it's unbelievable!
2 [countable] technical an unusual, cleverly expressed comparison of two very different things, especially in poetry , self-esteem, vanity / / noun [uncountable]
1 too much pride in yourself, so that you are always thinking about yourself and your appearance
2 the vanity of sth literary the lack of importance of something compared to other things that are much more important: The poem warns of the vanity of mental ambition., arrogance, self-importance
primary : elementary, fundamental, basic prime : primary primitive : primeval, uncivilized, uncultured principal* : prime, paramount, capital, chief, foremost, main, leading, cardinal private : individual, personal, confidential, secret privilege : prerogative probe : examine, explore, investigate procedure : proceeding, course, process
-179 -
proceed : advance, progress, continue proclaim : announce, declare, promulgate /verb [transitive]
1 to spread an idea or belief to as many people as possible
2 to make a new law come into effect by announcing it officially promulgator noun [countable] promulgation /" noun [uncountable]
procure : acquire, gain, get, secure, win, obtain prodigious : wonderful, marvelous, amazing, astonishing productive : fertile, fruitful profession : vocation, calling, business, employment proficient : skilled, adept, skillful profound : deep
profusion / / noun [singular, uncountable] a supply or amount that is almost too large [+ of]: The house was overflowing with a profusion of strange ornaments.
| in profusion: Corn marigolds grow in profusion in the fields.
: abundance, plenty, bounty progress : advancement, advance, progression progressive : forward, advanced progressively* : increasingly prohibit : forbid, inhibit project : plan, scheme, design prolong : lengthen, extend, protract promote : further, encourage prone / adjective
1 likely to do something or suffer from something, especially something
bad or harmful [+ to]: Some plants are prone to a particular disease. [prone to do sth]: Kids are all prone to eat junk food. |
strike-prone/accident-prone etc: I never saw a girl more accident-prone.
-180 -
2 formal lying down with the front of your body facing down: Colley lay prone in his bunk. prostrate1 (1)
proneness noun [uncountable] : inclined, dispose / / verb [transitive] formal to arrange things or put them in their places
dispose of sth phrasal verb [transitive]
1 to get rid of something, especially something that is difficult to get rid of: How did Dahmers dispose of his victims' bodies?
2 to deal with something such as a problem or question successfully
3 to defeat an opponent
dispose sb to sth phrasal verb [transitive usually in passive] to make someone more likely to feel or think a particular way about something
, liable, tending proof : evidence, testimony proper : appropriate, fit, suitable, suited, adapted property : 1. possession, effects, estate
2. quality, character, feature, characteristic prophesy : foretell, predict proponent* : supporter proportion : size, extent, dimensions propose : offer, proffer, suggest proposition : proposal prospect : anticipation, expectation, outlook, perspective prosper : succeed, thrive, flourish prosperous : successful, flourishing, thriving protect : defend, guard, shield, shelter, harbor protest : remonstrate, complain, object proud : arrogant, haughty, overbearing, self-important -181 -
prove : confirm, verify, corroborate / verb [transitive] formal
to provide information that supports or helps to prove someone else's statement, idea etc: We now have new evidence to corroborate the defendant's story.
corroboration / noun [uncountable]
corroborative adjective
, validate / verb [transitive]
formal to prove that something is true or correct, or to make a􀀆document or agreement officially and legally acceptable
validation noun [countable, uncountable] , substantiate
proverb : maxim, saying
provide : furnish, supply, afford
provision : food, supplies
provoke : enrage, exasperate / verb [transitive usually passive]
to make someone very annoyed by continuing to do something that􀀆upsets them
, vex, irritate
prudent : cautious, discreet, careful, wary
pseudo-/ / prefix
not real; false : pseudo-intellectuals (=who pretend to be clever): He says astrology's just a pseudoscience. : sham, counterfeit, false, fake
publish : announce, proclaim, declare
purchase : buy, procure
pure : uncontaminated, clean, spotless, immaculate,
unpolluted
purge : purity, cleanse, clear, clean, clarify
purpose : object, intent, intention, aim, end
push : shove1 verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to push someone or something, in a􀀆rough or careless way, using your hands or shoulders : shove sb aside/into etc: Secret Service men shoved people aside to make way for the President. | shove sb/sth: Stop shoving me or I'll tell the teacher! | pushing and shoving (=pushing with your body, especially in a crowd): There was no trouble at the rally apart from a little pushing
-182 -
and shoving.
2 [transitive always + adv/prep] to put something somewhere carelessly or without thinking much : shove sth into/under etc: Let's shove everything into the closet just for now.
3 shove up/over spoken, especially BrE to move along on a seat to make space for someone else: Shove up mate, there's no room to sit down here.
also when push comes to shove push2 (7)
shove off phrasal verb [intransitive]
1 spoken used to tell someone rudely or angrily to go away: Shove off! I'm busy.
2 to push a boat away from the land, usually with a pole, thrust
***** (Q) ******
quaint : strange, odd, unusual, extraordinary, uncommon quake : shake, shudder, tremble, shiver, quaver, quiver qualify : fit, suit, entitle, equip quality : characteristic, attribute, property, character, trait􀀆
noun [countable]
formal a particular quality in someone's character: Anne's generosity is one of her most pleasing traits.
quarrel : dispute, argument, controversy quick : prompt, rapid, swift, fleet, hasty quiet : pacific, calm, tranquil, serene quit : stop, cease, leave quiver : shiver. shake, tremble, vibrate, quake, shudder
-183 -
***** (R) *****
radiant : shining, bright, brilliant, beaming radical* : 1. fundamental, basic
2. extreme, revolutionary rage : anger, fury, wrath raise : lift, elevate, hoist random : haphazard / / adjective
happening or done in a way that is not planned or recognized: The training
was carried out in a haphazard fashion.
haphazardly adverb , aimless
range : extent, scope, compass
rank : position, standing, station, level
rapid : speedy, fast, swift, fleet
rapture : ecstasy / / noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a feeling of extreme happiness: His expression was one of pure ecstasy. | in ecstasy/ecstasies (=feeling extremely happy) | go into ecstasies (=become very happy and excited)
2 [uncountable] a state in which you cannot see or hear what is􀀆happening around you, because you are having a powerful religious experience
, joy, delight, bliss, exultation rare* : scarce, uncommon, exceptional, extraordinary rascal /noun [countable]
1 humorous a child who behaves badly but whom you still like: You little rascal! Where have you hidden my shoes?
2 old-fashioned a dishonest man rascally adjective old use: a rascally trick
: scamp, villain, scoundrel
-184 -
rash : reckless, heedless, indiscreet, imprudent ratify : confirm, sanction, validate ration : apportion, distribute, mete rational : reasonable, sensible raw : crude, rude, uncooked reactionary : repulsive readily : easily, willingly real : actual, factual, authentic / adjective
1 done or made in the traditional or original way: authentic Chinese food
2 a painting, document, book etc that is authentic has been proved to be by a particular person
3 based on facts: an authentic account authentically / adverb , genuine realize : grasp, understand, comprehend, conceive realm : sphere, domain, province, field rear* : nurture, raise, nurse reasonable : rational, logical, sensible, judicious reassure /" / verb [transitive] to make someone feel calmer and less worried or frightened about a problem
or situation: I was reassured by their offer of support. | reassure sb (that): They apologized and reassured us that the matter would be dealt with immediately.
insure􀀆: encourage, comfort rebel : insurgent / noun [countable often plural] one of a group of people fighting against the government of their own country insurgency noun [uncountable] insurgent adjective : the insurgent forces
also counterinsurgency, traitor rebellion : mutiny, revolt rebellious : defiant // adjective refusing clearly to do what someone tells you to do: He gave a short, defiant
laugh. defiantly adverb , rebel, mutinous
-185 -
rebuke : reprove, reprimand verb [transitive]
to tell someone officially that something they have done is very wrong: The military court reprimanded him for failing to do his duty.
reprimand noun [countable] , censure, reproach, scold recall : recollect, remember reciprocal : mutual recite : rehearse reckless : careless, rash, heedless, imprudent reckon : 1. count, compute, calculate, enumerate
2. consider, regard, deem recommend : commend recompense : compensation, reward reconcile : conciliate /k@n'sIlieIt/ verb [transitive] formal
to do something to make people more likely to stop arguing, especially by􀀆giving them something they want: Negotiators were called in to conciliate between the warring factions.
?conciliator noun [countable]
, appease
recover : regain, reclaim, retrieve, restore
reduce : diminish, decrease, abridge, curtail, abate, lessen
refer : attribute, ascribe, impute
referee : umpire, judge
reference : allusion, mention
refined : purified, clarified, distil also distill AmE / / verb
distilled, distilling [transitive]
1 to make a liquid such as water or alcohol more pure by heating it so that it becomes a gas and then letting it cool
2 to make a strong alcoholic drink such as whisky by this method
3 to get ideas, information etc from a large amount of knowledge or experience
distillation / noun [countable, uncountable]
-186 -
reflect : meditate, ponder, deliberate, contemplate, consider, muse reflection : image
reform : better, rectify /'/ verb rectified, rectifying [transitive]
1 formal to correct something that is wrong: I did my best to rectify the situation, but the damage was already done. | Please rectify the mistake at once.
2 technical to make alcohol pure
3 technical to change an alternating 쟠urrent (=flow of electricity backwards and forwards along a wire) to a direct 쟠urrent (=flow in only one direction)
rectifiable adjective
rectification / noun [countable, uncountable] also rectifier, correct, amend, ameliorate / verb [transitive]
formal to make something better: measures to ameliorate working􀀆conditions
amelioration / noun [uncountable] , mend,improve, repair
refresh : freshen, enliven, reanimate
refuge : sanctuary, haven
refuse : decline, reject, rebuff
refute / / verb [transitive] formal
1 to prove that a statement or idea is not correct: an attempt to refute Moore's theories
2 to say that a statement is wrong or unfair: She refuted the allegations
of malpractice.
refutable adjective
refutation / noun [countable, uncountable]
: disprove (Ant) agree, concur
regain : recover, retrieve
regard : consider, account, deem / verb [transitive not in
progressive] formal to think of something in a particular way; consider : deem that: They deemed
-187 -
that he was no longer capable of managing the business. | deem sth necessary/appropriate etc: They were told to take whatever action they deemed necessary., hold, suppose regardless : inattentive, neglectful, indifferent, unconcerned region : section, province register : enroll, list, record, catalogue regret : deplore, lament regular : uniform, even, systematic, formal, orderly regulate : control, direct, adjust, arrange regulation : rule, order, law rehearse : recite, practice, drill, train
reign1 / noun [countable]
1 the period of time during which someone is king or queen: the􀀆reign of Queen Victoria
2 a period during which something is the most powerful or most important feature of a place: the reign of Stalinism in Russia | reign of terror (=when a government kills many of its political opponents)􀀆
: rule, govern, prevail, predominate (Ant) obey
reinforce : strengthen, intensify
rejoice : delight
relation : connection, relationship, association, alliance
relax : loosen, slacken / / also slacken off verb [intransitive,
transitive]
1 to gradually become slower, weaker, less active etc, or to make something do this: The heavy rain showed no signs of slackening off. | slacken your pace/speed (=go or walk more slowly): Once outside the gates, I slackened my pace.
2 to make something looser or to become looser: Just slacken the screws a little. tighten
-188 -
(Ant) tighten, intensify
release* : 1. free, liberate, loose, discharge
2. emit, vent, give off, give out, let off. 3. loosen, loose, untie, unbind, uncivilized also -ised BrE / adjective 1 uncivilized behaviour is rude or socially unacceptable: uncivilized incidents of racial violence
2 an uncivilized hour informal extremely early in the morning, unfasten
relentless / adjective
1 someone who is relentless never stops being strict, cruel, or􀀆determined [+ in]: a regime that was relentless in its persecution of dissidents
2 something unpleasant that is relentless continues without ever stopping or getting less severe: the relentless fury of the waves | a relentless struggle for power
relentlessly adverb
: unrelenting, stern, severe, merciless, ruthless,pitiless reliable : trustworthy, dependable, infallible / adjective
1 always right and never making mistakes: I'm only human, I'm not infallible. | an infallible memory
2 something that is infallible always works or has the intended effect:
He had an infallible cure for a hangover. infallibly adverb infallibility / / noun [uncountable]
relief : 1. deliverance 2. alleviation, ease relieve : ease, alleviate, assuage, mitigate, allay, lighten, soothe, lessen, abate, diminish religious : pious, devout, reverent relish1 / verb [transitive] to enjoy an experience or the thought of something that is going to happen:
-189 -
Peter didn't really relish the thought of spending Christmas at his in-laws. | He spoke calmly, relishing the chance to infuriate his boss.
: taste flavor, savor reluctant / adjective slow and unwilling: She gave a reluctant smile. | reluctant to do sth: She
seemed reluctant to join in the discussion. reluctance noun [singular, uncountable]: He answered these questions with a certain reluctance. reluctantly adverb : Reluctantly, he agreed.
: unwilling, disinclined, loath, averse remain : last, abide, endure remainder : remnant, residue, rest remark : comment, utterance /'/ noun formal
1 [countable] something you say: Politicians are judged by their public utterances.
2 give utterance to to express something in words
3 [uncountable] the action of saying something, statement remarkable* : notable, conspicuous, unusual, extraordinary, noteworthy, distinguished remedy : cure, treatment remember : recall, recollect remembrance : recollection, reminiscence / noun [countable, uncountable
often plural] a spoken or written story about events that you remember [+of/about]: reminiscences of the war memoir, memory remote : distant, removed remove : transfer, transport, carry render // verb
1 render sth useless/render sb harmless etc to make someone or something useless etc: New laws have rendered this kind of
-190 -
assistance virtually impossible.
2 render an apology/an explanation/a service etc formal to say sorry to someone, give someone an explanation. etc : for services rendered (=in payment for something you have done)
3 [transitive] to express or present something in a particular way : render sth as sth: Through her art, she attempts to render feelings as colors. | render sth in sth: Children soon learn to render their thoughts in speech.
4 render sth into English/Russian/Chinese etc old use to translate something into English, Russian etc
5 [transitive] technical to spread plaster1 (1) or cement on the surface of a wall
render sth down phrasal verb [transitive] to melt fat until it is pure
render sth up phrasal verb [transitive] old use to give something to someone, especially to a ruler or enemy
: contribute, afford, present, give, assign renew : regenerate, renovate renown : repute, fame, distinction, eminence, reputation rent : lease, let repair : mend, remodel, amend, fix repel : repulse, parry /verb [transitive]
1 to avoid answering a difficult question: White House spokesmen tired of parrying journalists' questions
2 to defend yourself against someone who is attacking you by pushing their weapon or hand to one side; deflect parry noun [countable]
-191 -
repent / verb [intransitive, transitive]
1 a word meaning to be sorry for something you have done, used especially in a religious context
[+ of]: Repent of your sins and you will be forgiven.
2 formal to be sorry for something and to wish you had not done􀀆it : repent doing sth: I began to repent parting with you. | repent sth: He repented his decision.
: regret, atone // verb [intransitive] formal to do something to show that you are sorry for having done something wrong [+ for]: Richard was anxious to atone for his thoughtlessness.
replace : supersede verb [transitive often passive] if a new idea, product, or method supersedes another one, it becomes used
instead because it is more modern or effective: Television represent repress : : superseded radio in the Fifties., supplant, substitute depict, express, portray check, suppress, subdue, quell / / verb [transitive] formal
1 to bring an end to a violent situation especially when people are protesting : quell a riot/revolt/disturbance etc: They needed more troops to quell the ever-rising tide of rioting.
2 to reduce unpleasant feelings, especially of doubt or worry: I thought about the advantages of the deal, trying to quell a growing sense of unease.
, crush, restrain, curb1 / verb [transitive]
to control or limit something in􀀆order to prevent it from having a harmful effect: measures to curb the spread of the virus
reproach : abuse, reprimand /verb [transitive] to tell someone officially that something they have done is very wrong:
-192 -
The military court reprimanded him for failing to do his
duty.
reprimand noun [countable] , condemn, rebuke, scold, blame
reproduce : copy, duplicate, imitate, generate, beget // verb past
tense and past participle begot / ?gt/
or past tense begat
past participle begotten / / [transitive] formal
1 old use to become the father of a child
2 to cause something or make it happen: Hunger begets crime.
reprove : rebuke, blame, censure, reproach, reprimand, scold, admonish reputation : repute, honor, fame, distinction, renown request1 / noun
1 [countable] a polite or formal demand for something
[+ for]: They have made an urgent request for international aid. | request that: He ignored the neighbours' requests that he should make less noise. | at sb's request (=because they asked you to): I telephoned her in Paris, at Staunton's request. | on request (=when you ask for it): Further details will be sent on request. | by request (=because someone has especially asked for it): There were no flowers at the funeral, by request. | any requests? spoken (=used to ask people if they want anything): I'm going to the bar -any requests?
2 [countable] a piece of music that is played on the radio because someone
has asked for it : sue, petition, entreat, beg, supplicate, solicit, beseech require : demand, enjoin requisite : necessary, essential, indispensable rescue : save, deliver, redeem / / verb [transitive] formal
-193 -
1 IMPROVE STH to make something less bad: Olivier's performance􀀆redeemed what was otherwise a second-rate play. | redeeming feature (=the one good thing about someone or something that is unpleasant): a brutal man, whose one redeeming feature was his honesty
2 FREE SB to free someone from the power or evil, especially in􀀆the Christian religion: Christ came to Earth to redeem us from our sins.
also Redeemer
3 redeem yourself to do something that will improve what other people think of you, after you have behaved badly or failed: She was trying desperately to redeem herself after last week's embarrassing mistake.
4 redeem a promise/pledge/obligation etc formal to do what you promised to do: The government found itself unable to redeem its election pledges.
5 GET MONEY FOR STH to exchange a piece of paper representing an amount of money for the money that it is worth: Redeem this coupon for 20p off your next jar of coffee. | Bonus shares can be redeemed until 31st July.
6 GET STH BACK to buy something back which you had left with someone in order to borrow money from them: I was finally able to redeem my watch from the pawnbrokers.
redeemable adjective
research : investigate, study, examine, scrutinize
resemblance : analogy / noun [countable, uncountable]
a comparison between two situations, processes etc that seem similar, or the process of making this comparison : drawing/draw an analogy (=make a comparison): analogies between human and animal behaviour | by analogy (with) (=using an analogy):
-194 -
Dr Wood explained the movement of light by analogy with the movement of water.
, similarity, affinity / noun
1 [singular] a strong feeling that you like and understand someone because you share the same ideas or interests
[+ for/between/with]: I felt an immediate affinity for them.
2 [countable, uncountable] a close connection between two things because of qualities or features that they share
[+ with/between]: There is a remarkable affinity between Christian and
Chinese concepts of the spirit., similitude, likeness, alikeness reserve reside : residence resign : : save, retain, keep, hold dwell, abide, live, sojourn, lodge, inhabit : dwelling, house, habitation relinquish, abandon, forsake, quit
resilient / / adjective
1 someone who is resilient quickly becomes healthy or happy again after an illness, difficulty, change etc: I wouldn't worry -kids are very resilient.
2 a resilient substance returns to its former shape when pressure is removed
resiliently adverb : 1. rebounding, elastic
resist : withstand, oppose, confront, counteract, rebuff / noun [countable]
formal an unkind or unfriendly answer to a friendly suggestion or offer of help; snub2: Every attempt Yves made to befriend her met with a rebuff.
rebuff verb [transitive]: Brady rebuffed all her suggestions.
resolute / / adjective doing something in a very determined way because you have very strong beliefs, aims etc 뾬pposite irresolute
-195 -
resolutely adverb : She resolutely resisted his amorous advances. resoluteness noun
: resolved, steadfast, determined resolve : determine, decide, disintegrate // verb [intransitive, transitive]
1 to break up or make something break up into very small pieces: The whole plane just disintegrated in mid-air.
2 to become weaker or less united and be gradually destroyed: a society
disintegrating under economic pressures disintegration / / noun , separate, analyze, solve respect : esteem, deference // noun [uncountable] formal behaviour that shows that you respect someone and are therefore willing
to accept their opinions or judgment: He had the arrogance of someone who had always been accustomed to deference. | in/out of deference to (=done because you respect someone's beliefs, opinions etc): They were married in church out of deference to their parents' wishes.
deferential / adjective deferentially adverb , venerate / / verb [transitive] formal to treat someone or something with great respect, especially because
they are old or connected with the past: The Chinese
venerate their ancestors. veneration /" / noun [uncountable]􀀆, reverence1 / / noun
1 [uncountable] formal great respect and admiration for someone or something [+ for]: You should show proper reverence for the national flag.
2 your/his reverence old use used when speaking to or about a priest: The visitors have arrived, your reverence.
-196 -
respectable : estimable, honorable respectful : courteous, polite, well-mannered, civil responsible : accountable, answerable, liable restful : calm, tranquil, peaceful, undisturbed, serene, pacific restore : renew, renovate, repair, return, recover, revive restrain : check, repress, curb, suppress, restrict restrict** : confine, limit, restrain, curb /02 result : outcome, consequence, effect, end
retaliate / / verb [intransitive]
to do something bad to someone because they have done something􀀆bad to you : retaliate by doing sth: When the police started to arrest people, some of the demonstrators retaliated by throwing stones. : avenge, requite / / verb [transitive]
formal to give or do something in return for something done or given to you in the past, revenge
retire : withdraw, retreat, recede, retract
reveal : disclose, divulge, unveil (Ant) conceal
reverence : worship, veneration, respect, homage, awe
reverse : invert
revert* : return, come back. revisit.
review : survey, reexamination
revise* : change, modify, amend, alter, correct
revive : revitalize
revolt : rebel, mutiny
revolution : overthrow, revolt
revolve : rotate, circulate, roll, orbit, circle
reward : recompense, prize
rich : opulent, affluent, abundant, ample
ridicule : mockery, sneer, mock, jeer
ridiculous : absurd / adjective
completely stupid or unreasonable; ridiculous: Don't be absurd!􀀆|􀀆It seems
quite absurd to expect anyone to drive for 3 hours just
for a 20 minute meeting.
absurdity noun [countable, uncountable, funny, comical
right : just, equitable, upright
-197 -
righteous : moral, upright, virtuous, equitable rigid : 1. stiff, firm, bard / / noun [countable] literary a poet, inflexible
2. strict, severe, stern, rigorous rigorous : rigid, severe, harsh, stern, austere, strict rim : edge, border, margin, brim, boundary, verge riot : uproar / / noun [singular, uncountable]
a lot of noise or angry protest about something : be in an uproar: The house
was in an uproar, with babies crying and people shouting. , disturbance ripe : mature, mellow1 / / adjective
1 a mellow colour or light looks soft, warm, and not too bright: the mellow, golden light of early evening | mellow shades of brown and orange
2 a mellow sound is pleasant and smooth: the mellow sound of a trombone | a friendly, mellow voice
3 mellow wine or fruit has a smooth, ripe taste: a mellow red wine
4 gentle, calm, and sympathetic because of age or experience: Tina's become more mellow since having children of her own.
5 feeling calm and relaxed, especially after drinking alcohol: They were
feeling pleasantly mellow. mellowness noun [uncountable], developed risk : hazard, danger, venture, peril, jeopardy rival : competitor, contestant, antagonist, opponent roam : ramble, wander, rove, stray roar : cry, bellow1 / / verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to shout loudly, especially in a low voice: Tony bellowed instructions from an upstairs window.
2 [intransitive] to make the deep hollow sound that a bull1 (1) makes
-198 -
, shout, yell rob : deprive, plunder1 / / verb [intransitive, transitive] to steal large amounts of money or property from somewhere, especially in
a violent way that causes damage: The rich provinces of Asia Minor were plundered by the invaders. | greedy tycoons who plunder their companies' pension funds | plundered treasures
plunderer noun [countable] , pillage // verb [intransitive, transitive] if an army pillages a place, it uses violence to steal from and􀀆damage a place that it has taken control of in a war; plunder1 loot2
pillage noun [uncountable] pillager noun [countable]
robust : sturdy, vigorous, stalwart rot : decay, corrupt, degenerate1 / verb [intransitive] to become worse [+ into]: The debate soon degenerated into petty squabbling. degeneration / / noun [uncountable]
rotate : turn, spin, revolve, wheel, roll rotten : decayed, foul, corrupt rough : uneven, irregular, rugged // adjective
1 land that is rugged is rough and uneven: rugged terrain | a rugged coastline
2 a rugged car or piece of equipment etc is strongly built and not likely to break easily; sturdy
3 a man who is rugged is good-looking and has strong features which are often not perfect: Ann admired his rugged good looks.
4 rugged behaviour is confident and determined but not always polite ruggedly adverb ruggedness noun [uncountable] , violent, wild
-199 -
rouse : stir, excite, stimulate, awaken, provoke rude : discourteous, ill-mannered, impolite, uncivil, coarse rudimentary : elementary, fundamental, basic ruin : decay, downfall, spoil, demolish, destroy, damage
rural adjective
1 happening in or connected with the countryside, not the city:􀀆a􀀆peaceful rural setting | rural bus routes
2 like the countryside or reminding you of the countryside: It's very rural round here isn't it ?
urban􀀆: rustic (Ant) urban rush : dash ruthless : pitiless, cruel, harsh, severe, unrelenting, relentless,􀀆inexorable / / adjective formal an inexorable process cannot be stopped: the inexorable decline of
Britain's manufacturing industry inexorably adverb : The story moves inexorably towards its tragic conclusion. inexorability / / noun [uncountable]
***** (S) *****
sacred : holy, divine sad : sorrowful, mournful safe : secure, protected sanction : permission, ratification, authorization
sanguinary / / adjective formal
involving violence and killing: a bitter and sanguinary war : bloody, bloodthirsty, cruel, ruthless􀀆
satire / / noun
-200 -
1 [uncountable] a way of talking or writing about something, for example politics and politicians, in which you deliberately make them seem funny so that people will see their faults: the characteristic use of satire in Jonson's work
2 [countable] a play, book, story etc written in this way: a political satire
satirical / adjective
satiric adjective
satirically / adverb : irony, sarcasm /noun [uncountable]
a way of speaking or writing that involves saying the opposite of what you really mean in order to make an unkind joke or to show that you are annoyed : heavy scarcasm (=very clear sarcasm): She was an hour late. 밎ood of you to arrive on time, ?George said, with heavy sarcasm.
satisfy : gratify, meet, satiate /'/ verb [transitive usually passive] literary
to satisfy a desire or need for something such as food or sex, especially so that you feel you have had too much
satiated adjective : Zeke lay on the couch, satiated after his meal.
satiety / / noun [uncountable] , suffice
savage : wild, uncultivated, barbarous, uncivilized, cruel, brutal
save : rescue, salvage
savor : taste, flavor
scale* : climb, mount, ascend
scan : scrutinize, investigate
scandal : disgrace, dishonor, shame
scanty / / adjective
not big enough for a particular purpose: a scanty bikini
scantily adverb : scantily clad models : meager, insufficient, inadequate, deficient
scarce : rare, insufficient, deficient
scare : terrify, alarm, startle, frighten, shock, intimidate / / verb [transitive]
-201 -
to frighten someone by behaving in a threatening way, especially in order to make them do what you want: Buildings were bombed in an attempt to intimidate the opposition.
intimidation noun [uncountable]: allegations of police intimidation
scatter : sprinkle, strew / verb past participle strewn / / or strewed [transitive usually passive]
1 to scatter things around a large area
[+ around/about/over]: I found papers strewn all over the room.􀀆|􀀆be strewn with: The yard was strewn with garbage.
2 literary to lie scattered over something: Flowers strewed the path.
3 strewn with containing a lot of something: conversation liberally strewn
with swear words, disperse, dissipate scent : odor, perfume scheme : plan, design, project, plot, intrigue, conspiracy scoff : mock, scorn, jeer / / verb [intransitive, transitive]
to laugh unkindly at someone to show that you strongly disapprove of them
[+ at]: of course they jeered at you - you lost the game, right?
jeer noun [countable]: hurtful jeers, sneer, ridicule
scold : reprove / / verb [transitive]
formal to criticize someone for something that they have done : reprove sb for doing sth: I was reproved for wasting good paper.
, reproach, reprimand, rebuke
scope : range, extent, space
score : gain, win
scorn : contempt, disdain, mockery, scoff, sneer
scream : shriek1 / verb [intransitive]
1 to make a very high, loud sound: Judith suddenly shrieked and􀀆looked to see what had bitten her. | shriek with joy/pain/fright etc: Everyone was shrieking with laughter in the bar.
2 [transitive] to say something in a high, loud voice because you are excited,
-202 -
afraid, or angry: Anne stood in the doorway shrieking
abuse at him., cry screen : shelter, protect, veil, defend, cover, shield scrupulous // adjective
1 careful to be honest and fair: Mr Samuel has always been most􀀆scrupulous in his dealings with us. unscrupulous
2 done very carefully so that every detail is correct: scrupulous attention
to detail scrupulously adverb : scrupulously clean scrupulousness noun [uncountable]
: careful, painstaking, meticulous / / adjective
1 very careful about small details, and always making sure that􀀆everything is done correctly: He kept meticulous accounts. | She pasted the cuttings into the scrapbook with meticulous care.
2 if you are meticulous about doing something, you are very careful to always
do it [+ in/about]: He's meticulous about replying to correspondence.􀀆meticulously adverb meticulousness noun [uncountable]
. scrutinize : examine, investigate, dissect, study scrutiny : examination, investigation, dissection, inspection search : seek, explore secret : clandestine / / adjective
clandestine activities or organizations are secret: a clandestine affair
, conceal, private, privy secure : safe, protected, obtain, procure, get, acquire, gain segregate : isolate, separate, dissociate seize : grasp, grab, clutch, capture, grip self-evident : evident, obvious, clear
-203 -
self-satisfied : complacent / / adjective
pleased with what you have achieved so that you stop trying to improve or change things: There's a danger of becoming complacent if you win a few games.
[+ about]: We simply cannot afford to be complacent about the future of
our car industry.
complacently adverb , smug
send : transmit, dispatch1 also despatch BrE / verb [transitive]
1 formal to send someone or something somewhere for a particular purpose : dispatch sb/sth to: A reporter was dispatched to Naples to cover the riot.
2 old-fashioned to deliberately kill a person or animal
3 old-fashioned to finish all of something, convey
sensation : excitement, stimulation, animation, agitation sensational : exciting, stimulating sense : meaning, signification, significance, denotation senseless : stupid, foolish, silly, idiotic sensibility : susceptibility, sensitivity, sensitiveness sensible : judicious, intelligent, sagacious / / adjective formal
able to understand and judge things very well; wise1 (2) sagaciously adverb , sage1 / noun
1 [uncountable] a plant with grey-green leaves that are used in cooking
2 [countable] literary someone, especially an old man, who is very wise
, wise, sound, rational, reasonable sensitive : impressionable, susceptible sensual : voluptuous / / adjective
1 a woman who is voluptuous has large breasts and a soft curved body
2 expressing strong sexual feeling or sexual pleasure: a voluptuous gesture
-204 -
3 literary something that is voluptuous gives you pleasure because it looks, smells, or tastes good: the voluptuous fragrance of a summer garden
voluptuously adverb voluptuousness noun [uncountable] , sensuous sententious // adjective formal saying clever things about morality or the way people should behave:
sententious remarks sententiously adverb : concise, terse / / adjective a terse reply, message etc uses very few words and often shows that you
are annoyed: Derek's terse reply ended the conversation. tersely adverb : he said tersely. terseness noun [uncountable] , succinct / / adjective approving clearly expressed in a few words: a very succinct explanation succinctly adverb succinctness noun [uncountable]
sentiment : emotion, sentimentality, sensibility separate : divide, part, disjoin, sever, dissociate, segregate,􀀆split sequence : succession, series serene : calm, peaceful, tranquil, undisturbed, placid,
sedate1 // adjective
1 moving in a slow and rather formal way: a sedate procession
2 peaceful, ordinary, and not very exciting: a sedate seaside town on the
South Coast sedately adverb sedateness noun [uncountable]
serious : important, momentous, grave serve : assist, help, aid, succur//literary help that is given to
-205 -
someone who is having problems, contribute sever / / verb formal
1 [intransitive, transitive] to cut through something, separating it into two parts, or to become severed in this way: Martin's hand was severed in the accident. | a severed rope
2 to end a relationship with someone, or a connection with something: severing family ties severance noun [uncountable] : separate, divide, cut, cleave / / verb [transitive] formal past tense cleaved, clove / / cleft / / past participle cleaved, cloven / cleft
1 [intransitive always + adv/prep, transitive always + adv/prep] to cut something into separate parts using a heavy tool or to be able to be cut in this way: The wooden door had been cleft in two.
2 [transitive] to divide something into two completely separate parts: Class divisions have cleft the society.
3 cleave the air/darkness etc to move quickly through the air etc: His fist cleft the air.
cleave to sb/sth phrasal verb [transitive]
1 formal to continue to think that a method, belief etc is true􀀆or valuable, even when this seems unlikely: John still cleaves to his romantic ideals.
2 to stick to someone or something or seem to surround them , rend / / past tense and past participle rent / verb [transitive] literary to tear or break something violently into pieces
severe : 1. rough, harsh, brutal.
-206 -
2. formidable, rigorous, 3. tough, rigid, stern, strict shabby /adjective 1 untidy and in a bad condition from being used for a long time: a shabby suit | shabby hotel rooms
2 wearing clothes that are old and worn: a shabby tramp
3 unfair and unkind: That's a shabby way to treat someone. | a shabby trick shabbily adverb shabbiness noun [uncountable]
: ragged, beggarly, poor shade : screen, hide, protect, conceal, cover, shelter shake : sway1 / / verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to move slowly from one side to another: trees swaying gently in the breeze | sway sth: Melanie swayed her hips in time with the music.
2 [transitive often passive] to influence someone who has not yet decided about something so that they change their opinion: Don't allow yourself to be swayed by his promises.
, waver, agitate, shudder shameful : disgraceful, humiliating, dishonorable, ignominious shameless : brazen, impudent / / adjective rude and disrespectful, especially to an older or more important person:
an impudent child/remark impudently adverb impudence noun [uncountable] , insolent, unashamed
share : portion, part, allotment, quota, dividend, stock sharp* : 1. adj. keen, acute, pointed, pungent, severe, poignant
2. abrupt, acute, sudden􀀆ex. a sharp drop -207 -
shed : emit, radiate, diffuse shatter* : break, crush, crack sheer1 / / adjective
1 sheer luck/happiness/stupidity etc luck, happiness etc with no other feeling or quality mixed with it: It was sheer bliss not having to get up. | sheer hypocrisy
2 the sheer weight/size etc of used to emphasize how heavy, big􀀆etc something is: The sheer size of the country makes communications difficult
3 a sheer drop, cliff, slope etc is very steep and almost vertical1 (1): There was a sheer drop from to the sea 200 feet below.
4 sheer nylon, silk etc is very thin and fine, so that it is almost transparent: sheer stockings : unmixed, pure, steep, precipitous / / adjective
1 dangerously high or steep: A precipitous path led down the cliff.
2 precipitate precipitously adverb precipitousness noun [uncountable] , abrupt
shelter : protect, guard, cover, safeguard, shield, harbor, defend􀀆shield* : protect, defend, secure, guard, safeguard shine : beam, glare, gleam, glisten, glimmer, shimmer, shining : radiant, gleaming, bright, brilliant, glistening shiver : tremble, quake, shudder, shake shock : blow, impact shorten : curtail, abbreviate, abridge, condense, lessen, reduce
short-sighted : near-sighted, indiscreet, imprudent / / adjective formal not sensible or wise: It would be rather imprudent to invest in an arms company at the moment. imprudently adverb
-208 -
imprudence noun [countable, uncountable]
showy􀀆: ostentatious //adjective
1 something that is ostentatious is large, looks expensive and is designed to make people think that its owner must be very rich: The hotel loomed huge and ostentatious above the street.
2 someone who is ostentatious likes to show everyone how rich they are: I was vaguely annoyed by his generosity which seemed almost ostentatious.
ostentatiously adverb , gaudy, loud
shrewd / adjective
1 good at judging what people or situations are really like, especially in a way that makes you successful in business, politics etc: Martin's a shrewd judge of character. | a shrewd businesswoman
2 well judged and likely to be right: At a shrewd guess, I'd say Henry is going to leave his job. | have a shrewd idea (=have an opinion about something that is probably correct)
-shrewdly adverb : where you jealous of her? asked Sara shrewdly.
-shrewdness noun [uncountable]
: astute, sharp, acute, keen, penetrating shrink : contract, shrivel, diminish, decrease, dwindle shun : elude, avoid, evade, escape shy : bashful / / adjective
easily embarrassed in social situations; shy: a bashful smile |􀀆Many men
are still bashful about discussing their feelings. bashfully adverb bashfulness noun [uncountable] , reserved, timid, coy // adjective
1 pretending to be shy in order to attract interest, or to avoid dealing with something difficult: She gave him a coy smile.
-209 -
2 unwilling to give information about something [+ about]: Tania was always coy about her age. coyly adverb coyness noun [uncountable]
siege : blockade, besieging sign : token1 /noun [countable]
1 a round piece of metal that you use instead of money in some machines
2 formal something that represents a feeling, fact, event etc : a token of your gratitude/respect/appreciation etc: Please accept this gift as a small token of our appreciation.
also by the same token same1 (8)
3 book/record/gift token BrE a special piece of paper that you can exchange for a book, record etc in a shop; gift 쟠ertificate AmE :
a ?0 book token, indication, trace, hint, suggestion significant : important, consequential, momentous, critical, crucial, vital signify : express, indicate, mean
silent : speechless, dumb, mute, tacit
simultaneous : concurrent, concomitant1 / adjective formal
existing or happening together, especially as a result of something: war with all its concomitant sufferings.
concomitantly adverb , synchronous􀀆
sin : transgress / verb [intransitive, transitive] formal
to do something that is against the rules of social behaviour or against
a moral principle: Those who have transgressed against
custom must be punished.
transgressor noun [countable]
transgression / noun [countable, uncountable]􀀆
, trespass, violation, crime, offense sincere : candid, earnest, plain, genuine, true, real sip1 / / verb [intransitive, transitive]
-210 -
to drink something slowly, taking very small mouthfuls: She was sitting at the bar sipping a Martini.
[+ at]: Kruger sipped at his whisky thoughtfully.
: drink, absorb, sup situation : location, position, site, place, spot size : dimensions, proportions, magnitude skeptical : skeptic, doubtful, dubious, incredulous skilled* : able, capable, competent /adjective
1 having enough skill or knowledge to do something to a satisfactory standard: She's a highly competent linguist. | competent to do sth: I don't feel competent to give an opinion at the moment.
2 a piece of work, performance etc that is competent is satisfactory but not especially good: The workmen did a competent job.
3 [not before noun] having the legal power to deal with something in a court of law : be competent to do sth: This court is not competent to hear your case.
competently adverb , skillful, proficient, adept, qualified skillful : adroit, deft, adept1 /'{dept, @'dept ?'dept/ adjective good at doing something that needs care and skill [+at/in]: Melissa soon became adept at predicting his moods.
?adeptly adverb ,􀀆proficient, dexterous // also dextrous /'s/ adjective able to use your hands in a skilful way: dextrous use of the needle dexterously, dextrously adverb
skip : spring, jump, leap, bound, hop skirmish1 /noun [countable]
1 a fight between small groups of soldiers, ships etc, especially one that happens away from the main part of a battle
2 a short argument, especially between political opponents: Bates was sent off after a skirmish with the referee.
-211 -
: encounter, battle, fight, conflict, combat, collision slack : loose, relaxed slander : defame, scandalize, vilify /'/ verb [transitive]
formal to say bad things about someone, especially things that are not true, in order to influence other people against them vilification /" / noun [countable]: his vilification by the popular press
slaughter : butcher, massacre, murder, slay, kill slavery : bondage, servitude / / noun [uncountable] the condition of being a slave or being forced to obey someone else: The
legislation of 1781 abolished penal servitude in Bohemia.
, subjection, enslavement slay : murder, kill, slaughter, massacre, butcher, assassinate􀀆slender : slim, weak, fragile, feeble, delicate slide : glide slight : insignificant, trivial / / adjective
1 unimportant or of little value: I'm sorry to bother you with what must seem a trivial problem. | a trivial sum
2 ordinary: trivial everyday duties trivially adverb, trifling slim : slender, thin slip : mistake, error, blunder slumber : sleep sly / adjective
1 very clever in the way that you use tricks and dishonesty to get what you want: The way he did it was really sly.
2 sly smile/glance/wink etc a smile, look etc shows that you are hiding something you know from other people: She gave me a sly look.
3 on the sly informal secretly, especially when you are doing something that you should not do: They'd been seeing each other on
-212 -
the sly for months.
slyly adverb
slyness noun [uncountable] : cunning, artful
smart : intelligent, bright, sharp, clever, adroit, shrewd smash : shatter, crush, crash smooth : level, even, plain, flat (Ant) rough, uneven
snare1 / / noun [countable]
1 a trap for catching an animal, especially one that uses a wire or rope to catch the animal by its foot
2 literary something that is intended to trick someone and get them into
a difficult situation􀀆: trap, lure, bait sneer : scorn, jeer, jibe1 gibe / / noun [countable] an unkind remark intended to make someone seem silly: She was tired of his
constant jibes. , scoff, disdain, deride /dI'raId/ verb [transitive] formal to make remarks or jokes that show you think someone or something is silly
or useless: You shouldn't deride their efforts. | deride sb as sth: Wayne was derided as a mere playboy., ridicule􀀆
soak : steep, drench, wet, saturate soar : tower, rise, ascend, mount sober : unintoxicated, sane, sound (Ant) drunk sociable : affable, genial (Ant) sullen / / adjective
1 silently showing anger or bad temper: a look of sullen resentment
2 literary sky or weather that is sullen is dark and unpleasant; gloomy
(3) sullenly adverb sullenness noun [uncountable]
soft : yielding, pliable, plastic soften : assuage, moderate, mitigate, soothe, alleviate, ease solace : comfort, consolation
-213 -
sole : only, single, solitary solemn : grave, sober, serious, impressive, august, imposing, grand, majestic, stately
solid : firm, substantial, sound, stable, strong solitary : isolated, lonely solitude : isolation, loneliness
soothe / verb [transitive]
1 to make someone feel calmer and less anxious, upset, or angry: Rocking often soothes a crying baby.
2 to make a pain less severe: I bought some lozenges to soothe my sore throat. soothing adjective : gentle, soothing music soothingly adverb
: relieve, allay, mitigate, assuage, alleviate, appease, soften, lull sophisticated : artificial, mundane, worldly sore : painful, grieved, distressed, sorrowful sorrow : distress, anguish, grief, sadness, woe sort : classify, class, assort sound : uninjured, unharmed, unimpaired, healthy sour : acid, tart1 / / noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a pie (1) without a top on it, containing something sweet
2 [countable] informal a woman whose appearance or behaviour makes you think that she is too willing to have sex
3 [countable] slang a prostitute
sovereign1 /noun [countable]
1 formal a king or queen
2 a former British gold coin worth : supreme, chief, paramount􀀆
-214 -
spacious : ample, capacious, extensive, vast span : distance, length spare : save, reserve sparkle : spark, glitter, twinkle special : particular, especial, peculiar, specific specimen : sample, model, pattern spectacular* : dramtic, sensational, impressive
speculation /" / noun [countable, uncountable]
1 the act of guessing without knowing all the facts about something, or the guesses that you make
[+ about]: increased speculation about the possibility of tax cuts | speculation that: There is some speculation that the president was aware of the situation. | pure speculation (=speculation that is not based on any facts): The jury should disregard the witness's last statement as pure speculation. | wild/idle speculation (=speculation that is unlikely to be true)
2 the act of trying to make a profit by speculating (speculate2): property speculation : supposition, conjecture1 // noun formal
1 [uncountable] the act of thinking of reasons, explanations etc without having very much information to base them on: She didn't know the facts, so what she said was pure conjecture. | conjecture about their role in the affair
2 [countable] an idea or opinion formed by guessing: My results􀀆show that
this conjecture was, in fact, correct.
conjectural adjective , surmise􀀆
speculative* : 1. academic, abstract, theoretical.
2. thoughtful, reflective, meditative, contemplative, pensive, deliberative spend : expend, squander, waste, lavish, exhaust, consume -215 -
spin : turn, rotate spite : ill-will, maliciousness, malice splendid : gorgeous, magnificent, sumptuous, dazzling splendor : brilliance, grandeur, pomp split : cleave, rend, separate spoil : damage, impair, ruin, mar, harm, corrupt spontaneous : voluntary, uncompelled, willing spot* : find, locate, pinpoint, detect, recognize spread : unfold, extend, stretch, expand spring : leap, jump, bound, hop, vault sprinkle : scatter, strew, disperse spur : incitement, stimulus, incentive, provocation, instigation squander : waste, lavish
stab1 / / verb stabbed, stabbing
1 [transitive] to push a knife into someone or something : stab􀀆sb to death: Smith was found stabbed to death in a burning car. | stab sb in the heart/arm etc: Luca stabbed her in the thigh with a breadknife.
2 [intransitive, transitive] to make quick pushing movements with your finger or something pointed; jab1
3 stab sb in the back to do something that harms someone who likes and trusts
you; betray also stabbing1, stabbing2􀀆: thrust, plunge stable : invariable, steadfast, unchangeable, constant, steady stagger : sway, totter, waver, falter / / verb [intransitive]
1 to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way: The economy is showing signs of faltering. | My mother's iron grip upon the household never faltered.
2 to speak in a voice that sounds weak and uncertain, and keeps􀀆stopping: Laurie's voice faltered as she tried to thank him.
-216 -
3 to become less certain and determined that you want to do something: We must not falter in our resolve.
4 to move unsteadily because you suddenly feel weak or afraid: She faltered for a moment.
stagnant / / adjective
1 stagnant water or air does not move or flow and often smells bad: a stagnant pond
2 not changing, developing, or making progress; inactive: Industrial output
has remained stagnant. stagnancy noun [uncountable] stagnantly adverb : inert, inactive stain : taint, spot, dirty, blemish, blot stake : stick, post stale1 / / adjective
1 bread or cake that is stale is no longer fresh or good to eat􀀆:􀀆go stale: This loaf has gone stale.
2 air that is stale is not fresh or pleasant
3 news or jokes that are stale are no longer interesting or exciting: the same stale old jokes we've all heard before
4 someone who is stale has no new ideas, interest, or energy, because they have been doing the same thing for too long : feel/get/go stale: I'm getting stale in this job -I need a change.
staleness noun [uncountable]
: vapid /adjective formal lacking intelligence, interest, or imagination: vapid piped music vapidly adverb vapidness noun [uncountable]
-217 -
vapidity / / noun [uncountable] , old, decayed stammer1 /verb [intransitive, transitive] to speak or say something with a lot of pauses and repeated sounds, either
because you have a speech problem, or because you are nervous, excited etc: Whenever he was angry he would begin to stammer slightly.
stutter1 (1)
stammerer noun [countable] stammeringly adverb : stutter, hesitate, falter
stamp : trample, crush, pound stand : endure, undergo, bear, sustain, weather, tolerate, endure standard : criterion, gauge stare : gaze
startle / / verb [transitive]
to make someone suddenly surprised or slightly shocked: You startled me! I didn't hear you come in. | startled to see/hear/learn etc: I was startled to see Amanda there.
: surprise, alarm, amaze, astound, astonish, scare,frighten
state : condition situation, status, environment, position
stately : imposing, grand, majestic, magnificent statement : declaration, announcement, proclamation station : standing, rank status : position, standing, rank stay : remain, reside sojourn, rest steadfast : firm, stanch, steady, resolute stem : base, root.
1. stop, check, dam, obstruct, hinder 2. come, derive, proceed, originate sterile : barren, unproductive, fruitless stern : firm, strict, adamant /adjective formal determined not to change your opinion, decision, etc: We tried to negotiate, but they were adamant. | adamant that: Melinda was adamant
-218 -
that she would not travel with us. adamantly adverb , unrelenting, uncompromising, severe, harsh, hard,
infallible
stick : adhere, cohere, cling, cleave, hold
stiff : rigid, solid
stifle /'/ verb [transitive]
1 [intransitive, transitive] to stop someone from breathing or be unable to breathe comfortably, especially because the air is too hot or not fresh: He was almost stifled by the fumes.
2 [transitive] to stop something from happening or developing: rules and regulations that stifle initiative
3 [transitive] to stop a feeling from being expressed: He stifled an urge to hit her. | stifle a yawn/smile/laughter etc: Nancy stifled a yawn as the teacher's voice droned on. : smother / / verb
1 [transitive always + adv/prep] smother sth with/in to cover the whole surface of something with something else : smother sth with/in: a delicious sponge cake smothered in chocolate | He smothered her with kisses.
2 smother your anger/irritation to hide your feelings: struggling to smother her jealousy
3 smother sb with love/kindness etc to express your feelings for someone too strongly, so that your relationship with them cannot develop normally
4 [transitive] to kill someone by putting something over their face to stop them breathing: One night she took a pillow and smothered him.
5 [transitive] to make a fire stop burning by preventing air from reaching
-219 -
it
6 [transitive] to get rid of anyone who opposes you: They ruthlessly smother all opposition.
, suffocate / / verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to die or make someone die by preventing them from breathing: She rolled onto her baby and actually suffocated it!
2 be suffocating to feel uncomfortable because there is not enough fresh air: Can you open a window? I'm suffocating.
3 [transitive] to prevent a relationship, plan, business etc from developing well or being successful: Jealousy can suffocate any relationship.
suffocation / / noun [uncountable] , strangle, choke
still : motionless, stationary, tranquil, calm, peaceful,
placid, pacific, serene
stimulating* : restorative1 / / adjective formal
making you feel healthier or stronger: the restorative power of􀀆long walks
, refreshing, energizing, invigorating, reinvigorating stimulus : incentive, incitement, stimulation, provocation, stimulant crouch / verb [intransitive]
1 also crouch down to lower your body close to the ground by bending your knees completely: My legs began to ache from crouching for so long. | The boy crouched down to fix his sandal.
2 if an animal crouches it sits as low as possible, often because it is frightened or is going to attack something: The cat crouched, its eyes following the mouse as it scurried away.
stingy / adjective
-220 -
1 informal not generous, especially with money, when you can easily afford to be: Jim's too stingy to give money to charity.
2 a stingy amount of something, especially food, is too small to be enough:
The helpings here are pretty stingy.
stingily adverb
stinginess noun [uncountable]
: parsimonious, miserly, mean stir : agitate, incite, instigate, prompt, rouse, torment1 /noun
1 [uncountable] severe mental or physical suffering, often lasting a long time : in torment: She lay awake all night in torment.
2 [countable] someone or something that makes you suffer,
arouse, provoke, stimulate, goad, spur stock : store, inventory, reserve, hoard stoop : bend, lean, bow, crouch / / verb [intransitive]
1 also crouch down to lower your body close to the ground by bending your knees completely: My legs began to ache from crouching for so long. | The boy crouched down to fix his sandal.
2 if an animal crouches it sits as low as possible, often because it is frightened or is going to attack something: The cat crouched, its eyes following the mouse as it scurried away.
stop : interrupt, arrest, halt stout : stalwart, sturdy, athletic, vigorous strain : stretch, tighten strange : 1. unusual, extraordinary, curious, bizarre, odd,
queer, mysterious, eccentric, abnormal
2. foreign, alien stranger : alien, foreigner strategy : tactics stray : wander, rove, roam, ramble -221 -
stream : current, run, flow strength : power, force, vigor, might, energy, capacity strenuous / / adjective
1 needing great effort or strength: a strenuous climb | The doctor advised Ken to avoid strenuous exercise.
2 active and determined : make strenuous efforts: the strenuous efforts the council is making to improve security strenuously adverb : She strenuously denied the accusations.
: vigorous, energetic, active, eager, zealous, ardent,
earnest stress : emphasis, accent, force stretch : extend, lengthen, pull strict : rigid , rigorous, stringent, stiff, severe, harsh, austere, stern strife / / noun [uncountable] formal trouble between two people or groups; conflict1: a time of political
strife
: conflict, discord, quarrel, struggle, clash, fight stringent / / adjective
1 stringent rule/test/condition very strict and must be obeyed:􀀆stringent anti-noise regulations
2 stringent economic conditions exist when there is a severe lack of money
and strict controls on the supply of money stringently adverb stringency noun [uncountable] : severe, constricted, tight,
strict strike : hit, knock, beat, pound, slap1 verb slapped, slapping
1 [transitive] to hit someone quickly with the flat part of your hand: Do you think it's OK to slap children if they're really rude? | slap sb on the back (=hit them on the back in a friendly
-222 -
way)
2 [transitive always + adv/prep] to put something down noisily on a surface, especially when you are angry : slap sth on/down: I slapped the report down on his desk and told him to do it again.
3 [intransitive] to hit a surface, making a sound like someone being slapped noisily
[+ against]: Small waves slapped against the jetty
slap sb down phrasal verb [transitive] to unfairly and unkindly criticize someone so that they lose confidence
slap sth on phrasal verb [transitive] informal
1 to put or spread something quickly or carelessly onto a surface: She rushed upstairs and slapped on some make-up.
2 to suddenly announce a new charge, tax etc, especially unfairly or without warning: Many tour operators slap on supplements for single people.
strive : endeavor, try, struggle, toil stroke : striking, blow, beating, beat stroll : ramble, wander, roam, rove strong : powerful, vigorous, mighty, potent stubborn : obstinate, dogged, persistent, rigid, stiff, headstrong stuff : material, substance, matter stun : astound, daze, astonish, amaze, bewilder / verb [transitive]
to confuse someone, confound /k@n'faUnd/ verb [transitive]
1 to confuse and surprise people by being unexpected: His amazing recovery confounded the medical specialists.
2 formal to defeat an enemy, plan etc
-223 -
3 formal if a problem etc confounds you, you cannot understand it or solve it: Her question completely confounded me.
4 confound it/him/them old-fashioned used to show that you are annoyed , stupefying adjective making you feel extremely surprised, tired, or bored: stupefying
inefficiency stupefy verb [transitive]
stupid : dull, senseless, foolish sturdy : strong, robust, stalwart, muscular, stout subdue : conquer, defeat, suppress, subjugate, subject
subject : subordinate, subjected, submissive, obedient subjective : personal, individual ( Ant ) objective submerse : dip, sink, plunge, immerse submit : yield, surrender, obey subordinate :
: Adj. inferior, secondary, dependent junior, inferior, secondary supplementary subscribe : agree, assent, consent subsidize : back, finance, fund, substance : matter, material, stuff substantial* : real, actual, material subtract : deduct, discount succession : sequence, series successive : consecutive, continuous succinct adjective approving clearly expressed in a few words: a very succinct explanation succinctly adverb succinctness noun [uncountable]
* :􀀆concise, brief, lean, terse, condensed, laconic adjective using only a few words to say something laconically adverb suffer : 1. undergo, experience
2. sustain, bear, tolerate, stand -224 -
sufficient* : enough, adequate, ample suggest : indicate, hint, intimate summary : digest, extract, abstract summit : top, peak, apex, pinnacle, acme, zenith
summon verb [transitive] formal
1 to officially order someone to come to a meeting, a court of law etc :􀀆summon sb to sth: We were all summoned to a meeting with the principal. | summon sb to do sth: They'll probably be summoning you to appear in court.
2 also summon sth up to make a great effort use your strength, courage, energy etc: Summoning all her strength, Julia gave one last pull. | I couldn't summon up the courage to ask you out until now.
3 summon a meeting/conference etc to arrange for a meeting to take place and order people to come to it; convene : call, bid, convene /􀀆/􀀆verb [intransitive, transitive] formal
if a group of people convene, or someone convenes them, they come together, especially for a formal meeting: The President's foreign policy advisers convened for an emergency session. | Shouldn't we convene a meeting about this?
, convoke / / verb [transitive] formal
to tell people that they must come together for a formal meeting
superficial : shallow1 / / adjective
1 something that is shallow has only a short distance from the bottom to the surface: a shallow river | the shallow end of the swimming pool | a shallow grave
2 not interested in or showing any understanding of important or serious matters: a shallow argument | If he's only interested in your looks, that just shows how shallow he is.
-225 -
3 shallow breathing breathing that only takes in small amounts of air shallowly adverb shallowness noun [uncountable] , external, outward supernatural : miraculous, abnormal adjective very different from usual in a way that seems strange, worrying, wrong,
or dangerous: abnormal behaviour | an abnormal level of cholesterol | abnormal for sb to do sth: My parents thought it was abnormal for a boy to be interested in ballet.
supply : furnish, provide, replenish / verb [transitive + with] formal to fill something again or put new supplies into something replenishment noun [uncountable]
support : aid, help, assist, advocate suppose : assume, presume surpass : exceed, excel, transcend, outdo, beat, outstrip surplus : remainder surprise : astonish, amaze, astound, startle surrender : submit, yield survey : watch, inspect, examine, scrutinize outlive : persist, suspect : surmise, imagine, consider, suppose, guess, conjecture suspend : 1. defer, postpone, delay
2. stop, cease, interrupt, arrest suspense : uncertainty, doubt, indecision, hesitation, misgiving suspicion : doubt, mistrust, distrust sustain : bear, carry, support, uphold swallow : eat, gorge, gulp, engulf, devour sway : swing, wave, brandish / / verb [transitive + at] to wave something around in a dangerous or threatening way, especially a weapon: A man leapt out brandishing a kitchen knife.
, rule, reign, govern swear : avow, vow sweat : perspiration sweep : clean
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sweeping : broad, wide, extensive, comprehensive, wholesale, vast swift : speedy, fleet, rapid
swivel1 // swivelled, swivelling BrE swiveled, swiveling AmE also swivel around/round verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to turn something around that is fixed to a􀀆moving central point: He swivelled the camera on the tripod to follow the riders.
2 [intransitive] to turn around quickly in this way
: v. spin, rotate, turn.
***** (T) *****
taboo : prohibition tactics : strategy, maneuvering tale : story, narrative, account, fiction talent : aptitude, capacity, capability, gift, genius, faculty talkative : garrulous / / adjective always talking a lot: Ian isn't normally this garrulous! garrulously adverb garrulousness noun [uncountable] , wordy, verbose tall : high, elevated, towering, lofty tame : domesticated, mild, docile, domestic (Ant) wild tangible : real, substantial, concrete, substantive tear : rend / / past tense and past participle rent / / verb
[transitive] literary to tear or break something violently into pieces, rip, sever, split tease : irritate, bother, trouble, disturb, annoy, plague, molest, harry, harass tedious : tiresome, irksome, wearisome, tiring, monotonous, boring
temperament / / noun [countable, uncountable]
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the emotional part of someone's character, especially how likely they are
to be happy, angry etc; disposition (1): a sunny temperament : disposition, make-up, temper, nature temperate : moderate, self-restrained, sober (Ant) immoderate temporary : transient, transitory, fleeting /adjective [usually before noun]
lasting for only a short time : fleeting glimpse/impression/glance etc: I caught a fleeting glimpse of them as they drove past. | fleeting moment: For one fleeting moment, I thought I recognized her.
fleetingly adverb , ephemeral / / adjective
popular or important for only a short time: Fashions are by nature fickle and ephemeral.
ephemerally adverb
tempt : induce, persuade, entice, allure, seduce, attract,decoy, lure􀀆
tempting : inviting, seductive, attractive, alluring tendency : trend, proneness, inclination, bent tender : soft, delicate, lenient /'li:ni@nt/ adjective
not strict in the way you punish someone or control their behaviour: Judges have been accused of being far too lenient in rape cases. | a very lenient sentence
leniently adverb leniency also lenience noun [uncountable] , mild tense : rigid, strained, nervous (Ant) relaxed terrible : dreadful, awful, frightful, appalling, horrible terrific : splendid // adjective formal
1 excellent or very fine: a splendid person | a splendid suggestion
2 beautiful and impressive: There are some splendid villas near Rome. | a splendid view of the port
splendidly adverb : Joe and my father are getting along splendidly.
, glorious, superb, marvelous, sensational
-228 -
terror : horror, panic, fright, dismay tiresome : wearisome, tedious, dull, boredom toil : work, labor, strive / / verb past tense strove /strUv/ past participle striven /'/ noun [intransitive] formal
to make a great effort to achieve something
[+ for/after]: We must continue to strive for greater efficiency. | strive to do sth: The film studio is striving to improve its public image.
tolerance : toleration, patience
tolerate* :v endure
tool : instrument, implement, utensil / / noun [countable]
a tool or object with a particular use, especially in cooking: kitchen utensils
top : apex, zenith, acme, peak, summit, pinnacle, culmination, vertex torment : afflict, pain, rack, torture, harass, harry, annoy, vex, distress torrential* : wild, violent tide : stream, current touch : impress, move, strike, stir tough : firm, strong, hard, sturdy trace* : vestige, mark, sign, track, footprint, trail traffic : trade tragic : mournful, pathetic, pitiful, disastrous trail1 / / verb
1 [intransitive, transitive always + adv/prep] if something trails behind you, or if you trail it behind you, it gets pulled behind you as you move along
[+ across/in/through]: She walked slowly along the path, her skirt trailing in the mud. | trail sth in/on/through: Rees was leaning out of the boat trailing his hand through the water.
2 also trail along [intransitive always + adv/prep] to walk slowly,
-229 -
especially because you are tired or bored, and often
following other people
[+ behind/around]: Susie trailed along behind her parents.
3 [intransitive, transitive usually in progressive] to be losing in a game, competition, or election: The Democrats are still trailing in the latest poll. | trail (sb) by: At the end of the first half Bolton were trailing by two goals to nil.
4 [transitive] to follow a person or animal by looking for signs that they have gone in a particular direction: Police trailed the gang for several days.
also trailer
trail away/off phrasal verb [intransitive]
if someone's voice trails away or off, it becomes gradually quieter and then stops: She trailed off, silenced by the look Kris gave her.
: drag, draw
traitor : betrayer
transact / / verb [intransitive, transitive]
formal to do business: Most deals are transacted over the phone.
: settle, perform, manage, conduct, execute transform : change alter, convert, transmute transmit : send, dispatch1 also despatch BrE / / verb [transitive]
1 formal to send someone or something somewhere for a particular purpose : dispatch sb/sth to: A reporter was dispatched to Naples to cover the riot.
2 old-fashioned to deliberately kill a person or animal
3 old-fashioned to finish all of something, convey, carry, transfer transparent : clear, pellucid / / adjective literary very clear; transparent (1): a pellucid stream pellucidly adverb , lucid, impid // adjective literary
-230 -
clear or transparent: limpid blue eyes
limpidly adverb
limpidness noun [uncountable]
limpidity / / noun [uncountable] , crystalline
transport : carry, convey, transport
trap : pitfall / / noun [countable]
a problem or difficulty that is likely to happen in a particular job, course of action, or activity: English spelling presents many pitfalls for foreign learners. | avoid a pitfall: This little booklet will help you avoid the more obvious pitfalls of travelling alone.
, snare1 / / noun [countable]
1 a trap for catching an animal, especially one that uses a wire or rope to catch the animal by its foot
2 literary something that is intended to trick someone and get them into a difficult situation
treachery / / noun
1 [uncountable] behaviour that is not loyal to someone who trusts you, especially when this helps their enemies: the treachery of those who plotted against the king
2 [countable usually plural] a disloyal action against someone who trusts you : betrayal, treason /'tri:zFn/ noun [uncountable]
the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence
[+ against]: an act of treason against the state | commit treason (=do something that is treason) | high treason (=treason of the worst kind)
treasure : prize, cherish // verb [transitive usually passive]
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1 to love someone or something very much and take care of them well: his most cherished possession
2 to be very important to someone : cherished hopes/dreams/ideas etc: one of our cherished hopes, a community centre for the village | cherished memories
treat : entertain, regale / / verb
regale sb with sth phrasal verb to entertain someone with something, especially stories: Bailey􀀆regaled the customers with tales of our exploits., feast tremble : shake, quiver, quaver, quake, shiver, shudder1 / / verb [intransitive]
1 to shake uncontrollably for a short time because you are frightened, or cold, or because you think something is very unpleasant [+ at]: He touched Ralph's bare shoulder and Ralph shuddered at􀀆the human contact.
2 if a vehicle or machine shudders, it shakes violently: The train shuddered to a halt.
3 I shudder to think used to say that you do not want to think about something because it is too unpleasant: I shudder to think what they'll say when they see the mess the house is in.
shudder at phrasal verb [transitive] to think that something is very bad or unpleasant: Modern doctors shudder at treatments such as bleeding people with leeches.
tremendous : huge, gigantic, colossal trend : tendency, direction, inclination trespass1 / / verb [intransitive + on]
-232 -
1 to go onto someone's private land without their permission
2 old use to do something wrong; sin1 trespasser noun [countable]
trespass on sth phrasal verb [transitive]
to unfairly use more than you should of someone else's time, help etc, for your own advantage: It would be trespassing on their hospitality to accept any more from them.
: encroach, infringe / / verb [transitive] to do something that is against a law or someone's legal rights: Increasing care must be taken not to infringe copyright. infringement noun [countable, uncountable]: a minor infringement of the rules
infringe on/upon sth phrasal verb [transitive] to limit someone's freedom in some way: He found that all the media attention
was infringing upon his private life., intrude, invade trial : affliction, suffering, distress, sorrow, trouble, trick : cheat, swindle, beguile / / verb [transitive]
1 to persuade or trick someone into doing something, especially􀀆by saying nice things to them: Carr beguiled the voters with his good looks and grand talk.
2 literary to do something that makes the time pass, especially in an
enjoyable way, deceive, defraud, delude trifling : trivial, insignificant, unimportant, petty, negligible, slight trim1 / / trimmed, trimming verb [transitive]
1 CUT to make something look neater by cutting small pieces off􀀆it: Your hair needs trimming. | Can you trim the hedge?
2 REDUCE to remove parts of a plan to reduce its cost: We need to trim the Defence budget by a further ?00m.
-233 -
3 DECORATE [usually passive] to decorate the edges of clothes by adding a piece of different material : trim sth with: a dress trimmed with lace
4 SAIL to move the sails of a boat into a position that makes the boat go faster
5 trim your sails informal to spend less money
trim sth off phrasal verb [transitive] to cut small pieces off something so that it looks neater: Trim off the ragged edges.􀀆: clip1 / / noun
1 FOR FASTENING [countable] a small metal or plastic object for holding or fastening things together: Fasten the microphone clip to your shirt front. | hair clip (=a piece of metal or plastic for keeping hair in the right place)
뾱ee also bulldog 쟠lip, paperclip
2 CUT [singular] a process in which you make something shorter or tidier by cutting it: I'll have to give that hedge a clip.
3 FILM [countable] a short part of a film that is shown by itself: Clips from Mel Gibson's new movie
4 a clip round the ear/earhole BrE informal a short blow on the side of someone's head
5 GUN [countable] a container for bullets which passes them rapidly into the gun so that they can be fired
6 NEWSPAPER [countable] an article that is cut from a newspaper􀀆or magazine for a particular reason
7 $100/50 cents etc a clip AmE informal if things cost $100, 50􀀆cents etc
-234 -
a clip, they cost that amount of money each
8 at a good/fair etc clip quickly: Traffic was going by at a fair clip.
9 WOOL [countable] AustrE, NZE the total amount of wool that is􀀆taken from a group of sheep at one time , prune1 / / verb [transitive]
1 also prune back to cut some of the branches of a tree or bush to make it grow better: I need to prune the roses this weekend.
2 also prune down to get rid of the unnecessary parts of something: The essay's too long, you need to prune it down.
, shave, shear, arrange triumph1 / / noun
1 [countable] an important victory or success, especially after􀀆a difficult struggle: Winning the championship represents a personal triumph for the team's manager.
[+ over]: a brave man's triumph over adversity
2 a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction that you get from victory or success: yells of triumph
3 [countable] a very successful example of something: The gallery is a triumph of design.􀀆: win, succeed, prevail troop : band, squad / / noun [countable]
1 a group of players from which a team will be chosen for a particular sports event: the Italian World Cup squad
2 the police department responsible for dealing with a particular kind of crime : drugs/fraud/vice squad: Officers of the narcotics squad raided the club.
3 a small group of soldiers working together as a unit: a drill squad
-235 -
4 AmE a group of cheerleaders
, party company, group, herd, flock, swarm, throng trouble :1􀀆disturb, distress, worry, annoy, vex, bother,
1. effort, struggle, endeavor, striving, exertion,pains 2. discomfort, inconvenience. troublesome : annoying, laborious // adjective 1 laborious task/process/method etc a job or piece of work that􀀆is difficult and needs a lot of effort: the laborious task of collating all the evidence
2 seeming to be done slowly and􀀆with difficulty: laborious progress through the work
laboriously adverb
laboriousness noun [uncountable] , difficult, arduous, burdensome, hard
true : factual, actual, real, authentic / adjective
1 done or made in the traditional or original way: authentic Chinese food
2 a painting, document, book etc that is authentic has been proved to be by a particular person
3 based on facts: an authentic account
authentically / adverb , genuine
trust : confidence, belief, faith, credit
trustworthy : reliable,􀀆true, stanch //giving strong, loyal support to another person, organization, belief etc; steadfast: They are staunch trade unionists. | a staunch friend and ally
staunchly adverb
staunchness noun [uncountable] , dependable, credible
tumult /noun [countable, uncountable] formal
1 a state of confusion, noise, and excitement, often caused by a large crowd: His announcement was drowned in the tumult. | in tumult (=in a state of confusion or change): The whole country
-236 -
is in tumult.
2 a state of mental confusion caused by strong emotions such as anger, sadness etc : in tumult (=anxious, confused, or unhappy): His mind was in tumult.􀀆: commotion, disturbance, disorder, turbulence, uproar, agitation, uprising,
twinkle : glimmer1 / / noun [uncountable]
1 a glimmer of hope/doubt/recognition a small sign of hope, doubt etc
2 a light that is not very bright: the glimmer of a candle, sparkle twist : contort, distort typical : representative, symbolic, model, exemplary tyrannical : arbitrary, despot / / noun [countable] someone such as a ruler who used power in a cruel and unfair way despotic / adjective despotically / adverb , oppressive tyrant : dictator, oppressor
***** (U) *****
ugly : unlovely, unsightly, homely ultimate : final, last, extreme umpire : referee, arbiter, judge unaccountable : inexplicable, strange, incomprehensible unanimity / noun [uncountable] formal a state or situation of complete agreement among a group􀀆of people
: accord, agreement unassuming : modest, unpretending, unpretentious, humble unbearable : unendurable, intolerable, insufferable, insupportable unbecoming : inappropriate, unsuitable unbiased : fair, impartial, unprejudiced, disinterested
-237 -
unbounded : unlimited, boundless, limitless, immense, immeasurable, vast, infinite, endless, interminable / adjective very long and boring: interminable delays interminably adverb : an interminably long speech
uncivil : impolite, discourteous, impudent uncompromising : unyielding, inflexible, rigid, firm, obstinate􀀆undergo : experience, suffer undermine : ruin, thwart undertake : assume unequaled : unparalleled, matchless, peerless /adjective better than any other: Torvill and Dean's peerless performances in ice
dancing
unexampled : unprecedented, matchless, peerless uniform* : invariable, unchanging, consistent uninterested : unconcerned, indifferent unite : join, combine, incorporate, connect, conjoin, link, associate universal : entire, ecumenical adjective supporting the idea of uniting the different branches of the Christian
religion ecumenically / adverb
unlawful : illegal, illicit, illegitimate unmindful : heedless, regardless, careless, inattentive, neglectful unparalleled : matchless, unmatched, unequaled, unrivaled, peerless unpleasant : disagreeable, offensive, repulsive unreasonable : irrational, senseless, foolish, silly, preposterous
adjective formal
1 completely unreasonable; absurd: The whole idea sounds absolutely preposterous!
2 extremely unusual and silly: Look at that preposterous car!
-238 -
preposterously adverb preposterousness noun [uncountable] ,absurd, stupid, idiotic unrefined : coarse, crude, unpolished, vulgar / / adjective
1 remarks, jokes etc that are vulgar deal with sex in a very rude and offensive way
2 impolite and showing bad manners: vulgar habits
3 especially BrE not showing good judgment about what is beautiful or suitable: a vulgar display of wealth vulgarly adverb
unrelenting : relentless, implacable, inexorable, harsh, merciless, pitiless, cruel, ruthless unsettled : unstable, unsteady, shaky, unfixed, changeable, infirm unsophisticated : simple, artless, ingenuous, naive unstable : infirm, unsteady, precarious / adjective
1 a precarious situation or state is likely to become very dangerous: The refugees live a precarious existence in shanty towns. | a precarious peace
2 someone or something precarious is likely to fall precariously adverb : a cup of tea balanced precariously on her knee precariousness noun [uncountable] , inconstant, unsettled
unsteady : unsettled, changeable, unstable untie : unfasten, loose, unknot unyielding : inflexible, firm, stanch, steadfast, adamant /adjective formal
determined not to change your opinion, decision, etc: We tried to negotiate, but they were adamant. | adamant that: Melinda was adamant that she would not travel with us.
adamantly adverb resolute, determined upright : erect, vertical, perpendicular, conscientious,
-239 -
righteous, honest, virtuous uproar : disturbance, tumult, turbulence, commotion, clamor upset : 1. overturn, capsize, overthrow
2. defeat, subdue, overwhelm, embarrass / / verb [transitive] 1 to make someone feel anxious, ashamed, or uncomfortable, especially in a social situation: The old woman's blunt questions embarrassed her, making her momentarily tongue-tied.
2 to do something that causes problems for a government, political organization, or politician: a series of revelations that has embarrassed the government
urge : force, impel, press, instigate // verb [transitive]
1 to start something such as a legal process or an official inquiry: Without evidence it would be impossible to instigate an official investigation.
2 to start trouble by persuading someone to do something bad: A foreign government was accused of having instigated the bloodshed.
instigator noun [countable] , stimulate, persuade, induce urgent : pressing, mperative1 / / adjective
1 extremely important and needing to be done or dealt with immediately : it is imperative (that): It is absolutely imperative that these safety measures are implemented immediately. | it is imperative to do sth: By now, it had become imperative to evacuate the area.
2 a voice, manner etc that is imperative is very firm and has a feeling of authority
3 technical an imperative verb is one that expresses a command imperatively adverb , exigent /adjective formal
-240 -
1 demanding a lot of attention from other people in a way that is unreasonable
2 an exigent situation is urgent, so that you must deal with it􀀆very quickly
useful : serviceable, advantageous, profitable, beneficial
***** (V) *****
ineffective : empty, devoid, destitute /adjective
1 having no money, no food, and nowhere to live: Many people were so destitute they lived out of garbage cans.
2 be destitute of formal to be completely without something: a man destitute of all compassion destitution noun [uncountable]
vacant : empty, void, unoccupied vacant : unoccupied vagabond : wandering, nomadic, vagrant vague : indefinite, unspecified, obscure1 / adjective
1 not at all well known and usually not very important: an obscure poet | The exact origin of the paisley design is obscure.
2 difficult to understand: obscure legal phrases obscurely adverb , uncertain, indistinct, dim, unsettled vain : useless, worthless, trifling, trivial, unavailing, futile valid : just, sound, logical, cogent, effective, binding, legal􀀆vanish : disappear, end, cease, fade
-241 -
variable : changeable, inconstant, fickle, unsteady variety* : adj. diversity, kind, sort, species, type various : diverse, varied vary* : change, alter, diversify, transform, transmute vast : extensive, immense, huge, enormous, gigantic, colossal, prodigious, stupendous velocity* : speed, pace, rapidity, celerity vengeance / / noun
1 [uncountable] something violent or harmful that you do to someone in order to punish them for harming you, your family etc: Hamlet is driven by a desire for vengeance after his father is killed.
2 with a vengeance if something is done with a vengeance, it is􀀆done much more than is expected or normal: The music started up again with a vengeance.􀀆: avenging, revenge
venture : hazard, danger, jeopardy, risk, peril verbal : oral, spoken verge : edge, rim, margin, brim, brink, limit version : translation vertical : upright, plumb1 / verb [transitive]
1 plumb the depths of despair/misery/bad taste etc to express a􀀆bad quality or feel an unpleasant emotion in a very extreme way: When his wife left him Matt plumbed the very depths of despair.
2 to succeed in understanding something completely; fathom2: Psychologists are trying to plumb the deepest mysteries of the human psyche.
plumb sth in phrasal verb [transitive] to connect a piece of equipment such as a washing machine to the water supply
, erect, perpendicular vibrant : vibrating, shaking, oscillating vibrate : oscillate, shake, tremble, quiver, shiver
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vice : wickedness, evil
vicious : immoral, deprave / / verb [transitive] formal
to be an evil influence on someone, especially someone who is young or not very experienced
depravity / / noun [uncountable]: scenes of depravity
depravation / / noun [uncountable] , corrupt, malicious
view : 1. prospect, outlook, idea, notion
2. opinion, see, behold, witness, contemplate vigilant : attentive, wary, alert, awake, watchful vigorous : strong, robust, sturdy, energetic, powerful villain / / noun [countable] 1 the main bad character in a film, play, or story
2 BrE informal a bad person or criminal: Watch him -he's a bit􀀆of a villain!
3 the villain of the piece often humorous the person or thing that has caused all the trouble in a particular situation: The CIA is commonly regarded as the villain of the piece.
: rascal, scoundrel violation : breach1 noun
1 breach of the law/rules/agreement etc an action that breaks a􀀆law, rule, or agreement between people, groups, or countries: a clear breach of the 1994 Trade Agreement | be in breach of sth: We will expel any member found to be in breach of the rules. | breach of contract: If they fail to deliver the goods, we will sue them for breach of contract.
2 breach of confidence/trust/etiquette etc an action that breaks the rules of what people consider good or moral behaviour: Bond shook the Queen's hand in a deliberate breach of etiquette. | The company regards revealing confidential information as a serious breach of trust.
3 [countable] a serious disagreement between people, groups, or􀀆countries
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with the result that they do not have a good relationship any more: Britain could not risk a breach with the US over sanctions. | heal the breach (=make people etc stop disagreeing and be friends again)
4 breach of the peace BrE law an action such as fighting that annoys people in a public place
5 step into the breach to help by doing someone else's job or work when they are suddenly unable to do it
6 [countable] a hole or broken place in a wall or similar structure, especially one made during a military attack: a breach in the castle wall
7 a breach of security/duty etc the result of someone breaking a system, not doing their duty etc: There had been a major breach of security at the air base., infringement, transgression􀀆
violence : vehemence, intensity, force virgin : maiden, maid virtual* : practical, implicit / / adjective
1 implicit criticism/threat/approval criticism etc that is suggested or understood without being stated directly: Her words contained an implicit threat. | implicit criticism
explicit
2 be implicit in formal to form a central part of something, but without being openly stated: Confidentiality is implicit in your relationship with a counsellor.
3 implicit trust/faith trust etc that is complete and contains no doubts: They had an implicit faith in his powers.
implicitly adverb : We trusted Lopez implicitly.
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virtually* :􀀆1. In fact or to all purposes; practically 2. nearly virtue : goodness, uprightness, morality / / noun
1 [uncountable] beliefs or ideas about what is right and wrong and about how people should behave: traditional morality | declining standards of morality
2 [uncountable] the degree to which something is right or acceptable [+ of]: a discussion on the morality of abortion
3 [countable, uncountable] a system of beliefs and values concerning how people should behave, which is accepted by a particular person or group: Christian morality | a direct clash in moralities
immorality, justice virtuous : right, upright, moral, righteous, good, chaste visible : apparent, manifest, obvious, evident, open, observable, clear, conspicuous, unmistakable vision : sight, perception, discernment visionary : fanciful, imaginary, speculative, illusory vista /noun [countable]
1 literary a􀀆far view of beautiful scenery, especially looking between rows of trees, buildings etc: The balcony commanded a vista of the harbour.
2 the possibility of new experiences, ideas, events etc: Exchange programs open up new vistas for students.
: view, prospect, perspective vital : indispensable, important, critical, cardinal vivid : bright, brilliant, animated, spirited, vivacious, lively, vigorous, energetic vocation : business, occupation, pursuit, profession,employment,
calling vogue / / noun [singular, uncountable]
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if something is the vogue, it is popular or fashionable for a period of time
[+ for]: the vogue for childbirth at home | be in vogue/be the vogue: Short
skirts are very much in vogue just now. : fashion, style, mode void : useless, ineffectual, vain volume : size, measure, magnitude, mass voluntary : spontaneous, free, unforced vow : pledge, promise voyage : cruise, sailing vulgar : coarse, mean, rude
***** (W)*****
wage : pay, salary, earnings wake : rouse, waken, arouse, awaken, stimulate, activate, provoke, animate, motivate wakeful : watchful, vigilant, wary, observant, alert wallow1 / / verb [intransitive]
1 wallow in self-pity/despair/defeat etc to seem to enjoy being􀀆sad etc, especially because you get sympathy from other people: Stop wallowing in self-pity, and do something positive.
2 if an animal wallows, it rolls around in mud, water etc for pleasure: hippos wallowing in the mud
3 if a ship or boat wallows, it moves with difficulty through a􀀆rough sea : lounder1 / / verb [intransitive]
1 [always + adv/prep] to move awkwardly or with difficulty, especially in water, mud etc
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2 to be unable to decide what to say or do so that you find it difficult to continue: He left his interviewer floundering by answering every question with the word `no'.
3 to have a lot of problems and have difficulty continuing: Brando's career
was floundering when he was offered the role., roll
wander : ramble, rove, roam, stray, stroll, meander
ware : good, merchandise
warp1 / / verb
1 [intransitive, transitive] to bend or twist and to be no longer in the correct shape, or to make something do this: The door's been warped or something, it won't close properly.
2 to have a bad effect on someone so that they think strangely about things:
Henry's view of women had been warped by a painful divorce. : bend, deform, twist wary : alert, careful, cautious waste : squander, dissipate // verb formal
1 [intransitive, transitive] to scatter or disappear, or make something do this: England's arrogance was dissipated by a 1-0 defeat by the United States.
2 [transitive] to gradually waste something such as money or energy by trying to do a lot of different or unnecessary things, lavish
watchful : vigilant, alert, observant, attentive, heedful, careful,􀀆circumspect, cautious, wary wave : undulate /verb [intransitive] formal to move or be shaped like waves that are rising and falling:
undulating hills
undulation noun [countable, uncountable] , fluctuate / / verb [intransitive]
if something such as a price or amount fluctuates, it changes very often
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from a high level to a low one and back again
[+ between]: The present output of oil fluctuates between 3 and􀀆5 million gallons per week. | fluctuate wildly: House prices fluctuated wildly in the 80s.
weak : fragile, frail, delicate, feeble weaken : enfeeble, undermine, deplete / / verb [transitive usually passive]
to reduce the amount of something that is available: Our food reserves had been severely depleted over the winter. depletion / noun [uncountable]: the depletion of the ozone layer
, diminish, lessen, lower, reduce, impair, minimize weakness : flaw, defect, fault wealth : abundance, profusion wear-out : exhausted wearisome : tiresome, boring, tedious, irksome, monotonous, prosaic / adjective boring, ordinary, or lacking in imagination: a prosaic writing style |
People said he'd been a pirate, but the truth was more
prosaic. prosaically / adverb , dull weary1 /adjective
1 very tired, especially because you have been doing something for a long time: I just feel weary - I wish I didn't have to work nights. | a weary smile | weary of doing sth: I'm weary of arguing all the time.
2 especially literary making you very tired: a long and weary march wearily adverb : Alice signed wearily. weariness noun [uncountable]
: exhausted, tired, wearied, fatigued weave : intertwine, twist, curl, meander, twine, spiral, coil weigh : consider, ponder, contemplate wet : drenched, dampened, moistened, moist, humid whim / / noun [countable]
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a sudden feeling that you would like to do something or have something, especially when there is no particularly important or good reason : on a whim (=because of a whim): I went to visit her on a whim. | at the whim of: The palace decor kept changing at the whim of the princess. | a passing whim (=one that will soon be forgotten) | sb's every whim: I was spoiled. My every whim was catered to. : caprice / / noun
1 [countable, uncountable] a sudden and unreasonable change of mind or behaviour: the caprices of a spoilt child
2 [uncountable] the tendency to change your mind suddenly or behave in an unexpected way
, whimsy // noun
1 [uncountable] a way of thinking or behaving that is unusual, strange, and often amusing
2 [countable] a strange idea or desire that does not seem to have any sensible purpose: This room, by some architectural whimsy, completely unbalanced the house.
whip1 / noun
1 [countable] a long thin piece of rope or leather with a handle used for making animals move or punishing people : crack a whip (=make a loud noise with a whip)
2 [countable] a member of the US Congress or the British Parliament who is responsible for making sure that the members of their party attend and vote also Chief whip
3 [countable] a written order sent to members of the US Congress or the British Parliament telling them when and how to vote
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4 chocolate whip/strawberry whip etc [countable, uncountable] BrE a sweet dish made from the white part of eggs and chocolate or fruit, beaten together to make a smooth, light mixture also crack of the whip crack1 (20), give sb a fair crack of the whip fair1 (11) : lash1 / verb
1 TIE [transitive always + adv/prep] to tie something tightly to something else with a rope, or tie two things together : lash sth to/onto etc: The oars were lashed to the sides of the boat.
2 WIND/RAIN ETC [intransitive always + adv/prep, transitive] to􀀆hit against something with violent force: The rain lashed her face. | waves lashing the shore
[+ against/down/across]: The wind lashed violently against the door.
3 HIT [transitive] to hit someone very hard with a whip, stick etc: The guards would lash any of the prisoners who fell behind.
4 TAIL [intransitive, transitive] if an animal lashes its tail or its tail lashes, it moves it from side to side quickly and strongly, especially because it is angry
5 CRITICIZE [transitive] a word meaning to criticize someone angrily, used especially in newspapers: Judge lashes drug-dealers.
6 lash sb into a fury/rage/frenzy etc to deliberately make a group of people have strong violent feelings: The crowd was being lashed into a frenzy by the speaker.
lash out phrasal verb [intransitive]
1 to suddenly speak angrily to someone [+ at]: I used to lash out at my children for no reason.
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2 to try to hit someone, with a series of violent, uncontrolled􀀆movements: In its panic, the bear started to lash out.
, beat, flog, thrash, beat whirl : spin, rotate, revolve, wheel wholesale* : extensive, indiscriminate / adjective
1 indiscriminate killing, violence, damage etc is done without any thought about who is harmed or what is damaged: the indiscriminate slaughter of innocent civilians
2 not thinking carefully before you make a choice indiscriminately adverb
wholesome /adjective
1 likely to make you healthy: well-balanced wholesome meals
2 considered to have a good moral effect: games that are just good clean wholesome fun wholesomeness noun [uncountable] : healthful, healthy, salutary / / adjective a salutary experience is unpleasant but teaches you something
wicked : evil, immoral, impious, profane, blaspheme / / verb [intransitive + against] to speak in a way that insults God or people's religious beliefs, or to use the names of God and holy things when swearing
?blasphemer noun [countable] , corrupt, vicious, vile widepread : extensive, prevalent, sweeping wild : 1. untamed, undomesticated
2. violent, furious /'fjU@ri@s ?fjUr ? adjective 1 [not before noun] extremely angry: I've never been so furious􀀆in my whole life.
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[+ with/at/about etc]: He was furious with himself for not standing up to Gillman.
2 [only before noun] done with a lot of energy, effort, or anger: There was a sudden furious barking from the backyard. | furious debate/argument: a furious debate in Parliament over the new tax
furiously adver , boisterous, tempestuous / / adjective
1 a tempestuous relationship or period of time includes many strong emotions: a tempestuous marriage
2 literary a tempestuous sea or wind is very rough and violent; stormy:
lost in the dark tempestuous night tempestuously adverb tempestuousness noun [uncountable], frantic
wily : shrewd, cunning, crafty win : obtain, gain, procure, secure, earn, acquire, attain wise : judicious, sensible, sagacious / / adjective formal
able to understand and judge things very well; wise1 (2) sagaciously adverb , rational, reasonable, sage1 // noun 1 [uncountable] a plant with grey-green leaves that are used in cooking 2 [countable] literary someone, especially an old man, who is very wise
withdraw : retire, retreat, secede wither : fade, decay, decline, wilt1 / / verb [intransitive]
1 if a plant wilts, it bends over because it is too dry or old
2 informal to feel weak, tired, or upset, especially because you are too
hot
, languish􀀆
withhold : reserve, retain, hold back
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witness : 1. see, perceive, observe, watch, notice
2. testimony, evidence witty : amusing, clever, comic woe : distress, affliction, sorrow, grief, anguish, agony wonder : surprise, astonishment, amazement, awe, bewilderment wonderful : marvelous, remarkable, awesome, startling, prodigious, astonishing, amazing, phenomenal workmanship : handicraft, handiwork worry : trouble, torment, annoy, plague, pester, vex, tease, harry, harass, molest, irritate, disturb worship : revere, respect, venerate, adore worthy : worthwhile, deserving wound : injure, hurt wrap : cover, envelop, muffle /verb [transitive usually passive] 1 to make a sound less loud and clear: The falling snow muffled􀀆the noise of the traffic.
2 also muffle up to cover yourself with something thick and warm: He went out into the snow muffled up in his scarf and thick overcoat.
wrath : anger, ire, rage, resentment, indignation, fury wreck : destroy, devastate, ruin, shatter wretched : miserable, pitiable, dejected, distressed, pitiful
***** (Y) *****
yawn : gape yearn : crave / / verb [transitive]
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1 to have an extremely strong desire for something, especially a drug: She's
an insecure child who craves attention.
2 formal to ask seriously for something: May I crave your pardon?
, desire, want yearning : longing, craving, desire yield : 1. produce, bear
2. surrender, submit, concede ***** (Z) *****
zeal : passion, enthusiasm, fervor, ardor, zealousness zealous : ardent, enthusiastic, eager, earnest, fervent, passionate zenith : apex, peak, tip
zest / / noun
1 [uncountable] eager interest and enjoyment: zest for life
2 [singular, uncountable] the quality of being exciting and interesting: The danger of being caught added a certain zest to the affair.
3 [uncountable] the outer skin of an orange or lemon (1), used in cooking
zestful adjective
zestfully adverb : gusto / / noun [uncountable] with gusto if you do something with gusto, you do it with a lot􀀆of eagerness and energy: Brendon always sang hymns with great gusto.
, heartiness, eagerness zone : area, area, region, district, section
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