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Public Art

Although all art is inherently public—created in order to convey an idea or emotion to others—“public art,” as opposed to art that is sequestered in museums and galleries, is art specifically designed for a public arena where the art will be encountered by people in their normal day-to-day activities. Public art can be purely ornamental or highly functional; it can be as subtle as a decorative door knob or as conspicuous as the Chicago Picasso. It is also an essential element of effective urban design.                                              The more obvious forms of public art include monuments, sculptures, fountains, murals, and gardens. But public art also takes the form of ornamental benches or street lights, decorative manhole covers, and mosaics on trash bins. Many city dwellers would be surprised to discover just how much public art is really around them and how much art they have passed by without noticing, and how much impact public art has on their day-to-day lives.

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is based on the idea that people experience their world through their language, and that they therefore understand their world through the culture embedded in their language. The hypothesis, which has also been called linguistic relativity, states that language shapes thought. Studies have shown, for instance, that unless people have access to the word “ambivalent,” they don’t recognize an experience of uncertainty due to conflicting positive and negative feelings about one issue. Essentially, the hypothesis argues, if a person can’t describe the experience, the person is not having the experience.

Rail transportations is one of the way of transfering pessingers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails. People choose this way of transportation because it is very comfortable, secure and cheap. As everything else, rail infrastructure are evolved during the time and it still developing.Its the long way from the first type of railway to the modern railway. The first trains was used in Ancient Greece, when people used wodden carts pulled by oxen ran in grooves in stone road. In 16th century wooden rails and wodden wagons was used in coal mines. The modern train transportation started in 18th century with the invention of steam locomotive. Finally, the electric railway, in the form that we know them, started in the 19th century.Today, the railways are still developing. In modern world the time and comfor are realy valuable so nowdays engineers are trying to make rail transportation more comfortable and faster. For that purpose, in 20th century engineers are developed high speed railways. High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that runs more then 200 km/h, significantly faster than traditional rail traffic.

The most powerful source of energy in our space is our sun. Sunlight energy that falls in the USA in one single day is more than energy that USA uses for all year. That is the reason why lot of people started to use solar energy.
California state is a major supporter of solar energy. Lots of residents of Sacramento, capitol city of California, already have been using solar energy. Also, many of new buildings in Sacramento are equipped with solar cells and solar panels. This system allows people not just to save money because they use their own energy, but also to earn money. Everyone who produce extra power have opportunity to sell it back to the utility company. Except these personal solar panels, In California’s Mojave Desert there is a huge solar plant. This solar plant generates enough solar power for about half a million houses. Also, another advantages of this plant is low level of pollution.

Today’s shopping mall has as its antecedents historical marketplaces, such as Greek agoras, European piazzas, and Asian bazaars. The purpose of these sites, as with the shopping mall, is both economic and social. People go not only to buy and sell wares, but also to be seen, catch up on news, and be part of the human drama. Both the market place and its descendant the mall might also contain restaurants, banks, theaters, and professional offices. The mall is also the product of the creation of suburbs. Although villages outside of cities have existed since antiquity, it was the technological and transportation advances of the 19th century that gave rise to a conscious exodus of the population away from crowded, industrialized cities toward quieter, more rural towns. Since the suburbs typically have no centralized marketplace, shopping centers or malls were designed to fill the needs of the changing community, providing retail stores and services to an increasing suburban population.

Sushi, the thousand year old Japanese delicacy, was once thought of in this country as unpalatable and too exotic. But tastes have changed, for a number of reasons. Beginning in the 1970s, Americans became increasingly more aware of diet and health issues, and began rejecting their traditional red-meat diets in favor of healthier, lower fat choices such as fish, poultry, whole grains, rice, and vegetables. The way food was prepared began to change, too; rather than frying food, people started opting for broiled, steamed, and raw versions. Sushi, a combination of rice and fish, fit the bill. In addition, that same decade saw Japan become an important global economic force, and companies began flocking to the country to do business. All things Japanese, including décor, clothing, and cuisine, became popular. Sushi started small in the United States, in a handful of restaurants in big cities. But it caught on. Today, sushi consumption in American restaurants is 40% greater than it was in the late 1990s, according to the National Restaurant Association. The concession stands at almost every major league stadium sell sushi, and many colleges and universities offer it in their dining halls. But we’re not just eating it out. The  National Sushi Association reports that there are over 5,000 sushi bars in supermarkets, and that number is growing monthly

Tsunami (pronounced “soo-NAH-mee”) waves are larger and faster than normal surface waves. A tsunami wave can travel as fast as a jet plane and can be as tall as a ten-story building. Imagine dropping a stone into a pond. The water on the surface ripples. A tsunami is like a very powerful ripple. Tsunamis begin when the ocean rises or falls very suddenly. Large amounts of seawater are displaced. This movement causes huge waves. For a tsunami to occur, there must be some kind of force that causes the ocean water to become displaced. Most tsunamis are caused by underwater earthquakes. However, volcanoes, landslides, large icebergs, and even meteorites are capable of causing one of these mighty waves. Tsunamis are extremely powerful. Ordinary waves lose power when they break. Tsunami waves can remain powerful for several days. Because tsunami waves are so strong, they can kill people, damage property, and completely ruin an ecosystem in just one hour. Scientists have no way of predicting when a tsunami will hit. However, if a powerful enough earthquake occurs, scientists can issue a warning or a watch. A warning means that a tsunami will very likely hit soon. A watch means that conditions are favorable for a tsunami. When people are notified about a watch or a warning, they have more time to prepare. It is best not to get caught unaware when a tsunami is on the way!

Simply being bilingual does not qualify someone to interpret. Interpreting is not merely a mechanical process of converting one sentence in language A into the same sentence in language B. Rather, it’s a complex art in which thoughts and idioms that have no obvious analogues from tongue to tongue – or words that have multiple meanings – must quickly be transformed in such a way that the message is clearly and accurately expressed to the listener.                                                                                             There are two kinds of interpreters, simultaneous and consecutive, each required separate talents. The former, sitting in an isolated booth, usually at a large multilingual conference, speaks to listeners wearing headphones, interpreting what a foreign-language speaker says as he says it – actually a sentence behind. Consecutive interpreters are the ones most international negotiators use. They are mainly employed for smaller meetings without sound booths, headphones, and other high-tech gear. Equally taxing in its own way, consecutive interpretation also requires two-person teams. A foreign speaker says his piece while the interpreter, using a special shorthand, takes notes and during a      pause, tells the client what was said. Consecutive translation constitutes the basis of both types of interpretation, as it develops the requisite analytical skills. While 99 percent of the interpreter’s work is done in the simultaneous mode, consecutive translation is used whenever a high degree of accuracy is required

Writing is arguably the most important invention in human history. The opportunity for human knowledge to build on other knowledge is severely limited without the medium thought but also a complexity and scope to human expression that seem barely possible without it. The earliest known artifacts that could be considered writing by the loosest definition are the famous and extraordinarily beautiful 20,000-year-old ’’cave paintings’’ in southern France and northern Spain. The pictures, mostly of animals but with some human figures, possibly tell some sort of story or may merely be  pictures with expressive, magical, or religious purpose. Other assorted pictures have been found antedating the rise of the great civilizations of the Near East, but the earliest artifacts that are clearly writing date from about only 5,000 years ago in Mesopotamia.

There are many theories of aging, but virtually all fall into the category of being hypotheses with a minimum of supporting evidence. One viewpoint is that aging occurs as the body’s organ systems become less efficient. Thus failures in the immune system, hormonal system, and nervous system could all produce characteristics that we associate with aging. Following a different vein, many current researchers are looking for evidence at the cellular and subcellular level. It has been shown that cells such as human fibroblasts (generalized tissue cells) grown in culture divide only a limited number of times and then die. (Only cancer cells seem immortal in this respect.) Fibroblast cells from an embryo divide more times than those taken from an adult. Thus some researchers believe that aging occurs at the cellular level and is part of the cell’s genetic makeup. Any event that disturbs the cell’s genetic machinery such as mutation, damaging chemicals in the cell’s environment, or loss of genetic material, could cause cells to lose their ability to divide and thus bring on aging. Other theories of aging look at different processes.

Scientists do not yet thoroughly understand  just how the body of an individual becomes sensitive to a substance that is harmless or even wholesome for the average person. Milk, wheat, and egg, for example, rank among the most healthful and widely used foods. Yet these foods can cause persons sensitive to them to suffer greatly. At first, the body of the individual is not harmed by coming into contact with the substance. After a varying interval of time, usually longer than a few weeks, the body becomes sensitive to it, and an allergy has begun to develop. Sometimes it’s hard to figure out If you have a food allergy, since it can show up so many different ways. Your symptoms could be caused by many other problems. You may have rashes, hives, joint pains mimicking arthritis, headaches, irritability, or depression. The most common food allergies are to milk, eggs, seafood, wheat, nuts, seeds, chocolate, oranges, and tomatoes. Many of these allergies will not develop If these foods are not fed to an infant until her or his intestines mature at around seven months. Breast milk also tends to be protective. Migraines can be set off by foods containing tyramine, phenathylamine, monosodium glutamate, or sodium nitrate. Common foods which contain these are chocolate, aged cheeses, sour cream, red wine, pickled herring, chicken livers, avocados, ripe bananas, cured meats, many Oriental and prepared foods (read the labels!). Some people have been successful in treating their migraines with supplements of B-vitamins, particularly B6 and niacin.

A government scheme to keep people healthy Local governments have had to take on a new responsibility and ensure that people will stay fit and healthy. Birmingham council had been encouraging local residents to enrol in the Be active scheme, which allows them to use local leisure services completely free of charge. Each leisure centre must have fulfilled certain criteria to be considered. Be Active classes are also being provided in schools and community centres. Since it was launched in 2008, a third of the local population has signed up for the scheme. The majority were not previously members of a sports club of any kind, half were overweight or obese, and a fifth considered themselves to be in poor health, indicating that the scheme is reaching the people who need it most 

A proposal to build a solar farm near a British village called Barnley The Barnley Village Committee is opposed to plans to build a 6,890 panel solar farm on a 15-acre site adjacent to the village recreation ground, currently used for agriculture. The councilors are due to vote whether or not plans will go ahead. Local residents are invited to attend. They will present their objections before the board, and a representative from the solar firm SunGen will put forward the case for the development. They tried to encourage residents to vote for them and the residents are welcome to make their objections personal, by stating how the plans will affect them as a user of the recreation ground. 

Students accommodations Some university students prefer to live with their families until they graduate and can earn their own living. However, it is also very common for young people beginning university to choose to live together with other students in halls of residence. Although there are several potential downsides to this communal way of living, there are also numerous benefits. A student residence usually can be a very good option. Students can make friends easily, never live alone and residences are usually near the university so students can save money and time at the same time. Despite these clear advantages, there are also considerable drawbacks. Sometimes students' rooms are very small and bathrooms may sometimes have to be shared. Being full of young people, halls can also be very noisy. Likewise, parties and late nights are common and can interfere with students' academic progress. All things considered, there are pros and cons to living in halls. 

Japanese denim Japanese denim has a reputation among enthusiasts as being the best in the world. It has a cult following in Europe and America because of its amazing look and feel. The cloth is stiffer, denser but far more comfortable than the mass-produced denim used in other countries. Japanese denim is different because they use traditional production techniques that have been abandoned elsewhere. Most denim today is produced using chemical dye, but Japanese denim uses natural dye, and the material is dipped up to thirty times to produce a deep, intense, and rich color that fades with time. These traditional methods are more labor-intense, which makes the product more expensive, but Tokyo's trendsetters are willing to splash out on the perfect pair of jeans. 

We are not robots At school, almost all have to study the subjects they do not like alongside the ones they find interesting. Although some university courses sound very interesting, young people often avoid them because in many cases they don't lead to an obvious career. Examples include film studies, popular music, and psychology because to get a job graduates have to be very lucky or be the very best. Understandably, many students decide that a more practical degree like accountancy or engineering. The outcome of such a choice could be low grades and a very unhappy time at university. 

New York Located at the mouth of Hudson River, there is no place like New York with its iconic skyline. The hip-hop was invented there. There is a huge number of theatres: more than 400 in total. In summer, this cosmopolitan city is full of free cultural activities like museum nights and live music. New York is renowned for its traffic jams, but unlike other cities where the subway closes at night, The NY subway runs twenty-four hours of a day. To summarize, New York isn’t the cheapest place to live, but this is offset by high salaries and good youth employment. 

Diners During the twenties, diners appeared and by the end of the decade, they were established as a good, inexpensive place to eat that could bring to the owner upwards of 12,000 dollars a year. The diners were changed during the years. At first, it grew larger, but in the end, that resulted in the buildings made of concrete and surrounded by huge parking lots. Those changes required an increase in the price of the meal. That problem was filled by the fast-food franchise chains which offer food for cheap prices. 

Do-it-yourselfers Do-it-yourselfers is not good only for the environment, but also for saving money. One example is plastic bottles that can be converted to first-rate containers for nails, screws, or small parts. The second example is plastic bags make good drop cloths to catch paint drips or spills. The thicker plastic, the better, because it is less possible to blow around in a breeze when used outdoors 

Vitamins Vitamins are certain substances found in food. Most of them are found accidental. They have an important role in regulating some processes in our body. Most of them cannot be produced in the body and because of that is important to enter by diet. The vitamins can be divided into two groups: those soluble in fat, and those soluble in water. 

Bridges collapse Some of the biggest and most expensive transportation projects in the world have involved building bridges. Bridges are crucial links that carry cars, trucks, and trains across bodies of water, mountain gorges, or other roads. Bridge collapses can be tragic events, leading to loss of life and serious property damage. Some of the reasons that can lead to a tragic end can be: fire, earthquake, boat or train crash, during construction, by defect... The best way for them to prevent these accidents is to understand why bridges collapse in the first place because understanding bridge collapses can lead to major changes in the design, construction, and safety of future building projects.

 Sharing economy Everyone was at least one buy something that he/she didn't really need. With the advent of the internet, online communities have figured out a way to generate profit from the sharing of those underused assets. Using websites and social media groups that facilitate the buying and selling of second-hand goods, it is now easier than ever for peer-to-peer sharing activities to take place. And this is known as the sharing economy. Businesses have also caught on to the profitability of the sharing economy and start providing an online platform that puts customers in contact with those who can provide a particular product or service.  

Cultural behavior in business Much of today's business is conducted across international borders, and while the majority of the global business community might share the use of English as a common language, the nuances and expectations of business communication vary widely from culture to culture. Unfair judgments, misunderstandings, and communication breakdowns might emerge from a lack of understanding of our business contacts' cultural norms and practices. Some of the key areas where business etiquette differs around the world may come in handy if you ever find yourself working with someone from a foreign culture, and that key facts are addressing someone, smiling, eye contact. 

Sustainable supermarkets Over the last decade, many of the big grocery companies have been accused of different unethical practices. They've thrown away a lot of food, underpaid their suppliers, and contributed to a lot of plastic waste in their packaging, all of which have had an impact on the environment. Supermarkets and grocers, on the other hand, are starting to take note. Some of the top UK supermarkets have signed up to an agreement vowing to alter packaging and reduce plastic waste in response to growing public anger over the vast volumes of plastic waste generated by plastic packaging. Without a doubt, we still have a long way to go in terms of decreasing food and plastic waste. However, perhaps the larger supermarkets will take inspiration from these little grocers and work towards a more sustainable future for all of us. 

Graffiti The first drawings on walls appeared in caves thousands of years ago. Modern graffiti seems to have appeared in Philadelphia in the early 1960s, and by the late sixties, it had reached New York. People who did graffiti work in groups named crews. The debate over whether graffiti is art or vandalism is still going on. For decades graffiti has been a springboard to international fame for a few. Some of the graffiti of the famous artists was sold for over 100,000 dollars.