Do-it-yourselfers Do-it-yourselfers is not good only for the environment, but also for saving money. One example is plastic bottles that can be converted to first-rate containers for nails, screws, or small parts. The second example is plastic bags make good drop cloths to catch paint drips or spills. The thicker plastic, the better, because it is less possible to blow around in a breeze when used outdoors 

Vitamins Vitamins are certain substances found in food. Most of them are found accidental. They have an important role in regulating some processes in our body. Most of them cannot be produced in the body and because of that is important to enter by diet. The vitamins can be divided into two groups: those soluble in fat, and those soluble in water.

Sharing economy Everyone was at least one buy something that he/she didn't really need. With the advent of the internet, online communities have figured out a way to generate profit from the sharing of those underused assets. Using websites and social media groups that facilitate the buying and selling of second-hand goods, it is now easier than ever for peer-to-peer sharing activities to take place. And this is known as the sharing economy. Businesses have also caught on to the profitability of the sharing economy and start providing an online platform that puts customers in contact with those who can provide a particular product or service.  

Cultural behavior in business Much of today's business is conducted across international borders, and while the majority of the global business community might share the use of English as a common language, the nuances and expectations of business communication vary widely from culture to culture. Unfair judgments, misunderstandings, and communication breakdowns might emerge from a lack of understanding of our business contacts' cultural norms and practices. Some of the key areas where business etiquette differs around the world may come in handy if you ever find yourself working with someone from a foreign culture, and that key facts are addressing someone, smiling, eye contact. 

We are not robots At school, almost all have to study the subjects they do not like alongside the ones they find interesting. Although some university courses sound very interesting, young people often avoid them because in many cases they don't lead to an obvious career. Examples include film studies, popular music, and psychology because to get a job graduates have to be very lucky or be the very best. Understandably, many students decide that a more practical degree like accountancy or engineering. The outcome of such a choice could be low grades and a very unhappy time at university. 

Graffiti The first drawings on walls appeared in caves thousands of years ago. Modern graffiti seems to have appeared in Philadelphia in the early 1960s, and by the late sixties, it had reached New York. People who did graffiti work in groups named crews. The debate over whether graffiti is art or vandalism is still going on. For decades graffiti has been a springboard to international fame for a few. Some of the graffiti of the famous artists was sold for over 100,000 dollars.

New York Located at the mouth of Hudson River, there is no place like New York with its iconic skyline. The hip-hop was invented there. There is a huge number of theatres: more than 400 in total. In summer, this cosmopolitan city is full of free cultural activities like museum nights and live music. New York is renowned for its traffic jams, but unlike other cities where the subway closes at night, The NY subway runs twenty-four hours of a day. To summarize, New York isn’t the cheapest place to live, but this is offset by high salaries and good youth employment. 

Diners During the twenties, diners appeared and by the end of the decade, they were established as a good, inexpensive place to eat that could bring to the owner upwards of 12,000 dollars a year. The diners were changed during the years. At first, it grew larger, but in the end, that resulted in the buildings made of concrete and surrounded by huge parking lots. Those changes required an increase in the price of the meal. That problem was filled by the fast-food franchise chains which offer food for cheap prices.

Bridges collapse Some of the biggest and most expensive transportation projects in the world have involved building bridges. Bridges are crucial links that carry cars, trucks, and trains across bodies of water, mountain gorges, or other roads. Bridge collapses can be tragic events, leading to loss of life and serious property damage. Some of the reasons that can lead to a tragic end can be: fire, earthquake, boat or train crash, during construction, by defect... The best way for them to prevent these accidents is to understand why bridges collapse in the first place because understanding bridge collapses can lead to major changes in the design, construction, and safety of future building projects.

Sustainable supermarkets Over the last decade, many of the big grocery companies have been accused of different unethical practices. They've thrown away a lot of food, underpaid their suppliers, and contributed to a lot of plastic waste in their packaging, all of which have had an impact on the environment. Supermarkets and grocers, on the other hand, are starting to take note. Some of the top UK supermarkets have signed up to an agreement vowing to alter packaging and reduce plastic waste in response to growing public anger over the vast volumes of plastic waste generated by plastic packaging. Without a doubt, we still have a long way to go in terms of decreasing food and plastic waste. However, perhaps the larger supermarkets will take inspiration from these little grocers and work towards a more sustainable future for all of us. 

Japanese denim Japanese denim has a reputation among enthusiasts as being the best in the world. It has a cult following in Europe and America because of its amazing look and feel. The cloth is stiffer, denser but far more comfortable than the mass-produced denim used in other countries. Japanese denim is different because they use traditional production techniques that have been abandoned elsewhere. Most denim today is produced using chemical dye, but Japanese denim uses natural dye, and the material is dipped up to thirty times to produce a deep, intense, and rich color that fades with time. These traditional methods are more labor-intense, which makes the product more expensive, but Tokyo's trendsetters are willing to splash out on the perfect pair of jeans.


China's Yellow River gave birth to one of the great early civilizations. Despite frequent devastating floods, a series of agricultural villages have sprung up along the banks of the river, producing major crops such as wheat and millet. Around 1600 BCE, the agricultural villages along the Yellow River were unified under the banner of the nomads known as Shang. One of the most important contributions of the Shang Dynasty was the establishment of a new social stratification system. In business society, the highest social class is reserved for the king, while warriors, craftsmen, merchants, and farmers occupy other levels. The Shang Dynasty also made scientific and technological contributions to Chinese society, such as the introduction of bronze as a material for the production of weapons and other commodities. During the Shang Dynasty, the Chinese began to raise silkworms and produce silk, which later became one of China's most valuable trade commodities. However, perhaps the most important contribution of the Shang Dynasty was the introduction of a writing system. The written language uses ideograms (characters) to express various ideas. About 600 years later, the Shang Dynasty declined. Around 1046 BC, the Shang Dynasty was overthrown by the Zhou Dynasty. Many historians agree that the most important development of the Zhou Dynasty was the emergence of a philosophy called Confucianism. The founding of Confucius (Kung-fu-tzu), this philosophy believed in the values of respect for ancestors, sound government and education. Confucius taught that only an educated person can control the government in order to achieve social harmony.

(1)Writers have to be very skillful in word choice in order to evoke emotions. (2)As I explored Edgar Allan Poe’s works, I became intrigued with the way Poe carefully chose language and how it elicits specific feelings.

(3)Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart” involves a young man who rents a room from an elderly man in a large, dark mansion. (4)Descriptions of this eerie setting help Poe create the mood. (5)He masterfully builds suspense in “The Tell-Tale Heart.” (6)You realize he is capable of anything. (7)For example, the tenant opens his landlord’s bedroom door at night and stares at his glass eye for hours while in a seething rage.

(8)The police investigate the home after a neighbor reported hearing screams. (9)The tenant invites the police into the room where he did hide the corpse that was dismembered. (10)Poe adds to the suspenseful mood because you wonder if the man will confess to murder. (11)While being interrogated, the man hears a faint heartbeat that grows louder. (12)However, he is the only one who hears it.(13)His attempt to fool the police while sitting on the corpse fails as he mentally breaks down from the noise inside his mind and confesses.

(14)As Poe creates an eerie, suspenseful tone in his fiction, it shows that authors can lead their readers to feel certain emotions through their writing.

 Narrator came into the family-owned ink shop with Old Widow Lau as her relative. She is learning about inksticks and her ink shop throughout the text from her uncles and Father. She heard them talking to customers about certain qualities that every inkstick should have. She explored the shop as though it was her first time there. She was paying attention to every detail in the shop, comparing it with other ink shop she visited. It was quite a difference in beauty in favor of her family shop. She found out soon that all of that beauty was a product of hard work that Father and other people around him put in. She was learning the art of ink making and comparing them to those lessons she already knew, but it was different. She learned precious information about inks and was convinced and proud that her family ink shop was successful. 

Psychology professor Wegner at Harvard university was researching connection between our memory and the use of internet. He stated that people definitely remember less things now then before the internet. We remember less facts, because we know that we can rely on “google” to tell us. We don’t bother with remembering things that we can easily check online. We develop our “transactive memory” now more than ever, and that is to divide information into sections and categories. Remembering where the information is would fall into “transactive memory” also. As the professor said; “you just have to remember who knows it”. In the experiment that he organized, he concluded that people who were given to remember folder in which information is stored did better than people who needed to remember the exact information.  Professor Wegner doesn’t think that it is a “bad” thing to rely on the computers as our “mechanical hand” because we still need to remember where the information is. 

Biology professor wanted to see how evolution affects the circle of guppies, in particular reproduction, diet and how they live. He chose guppies because their rate of reproduction was high and he was more likely to see possible evolutionary changes over his lifetime. He put guppies in their natural environment and in the no predator zone. He found out that guppies in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter predators, were reproducing quicker so they could save their species. Putting guppies in no predator zone, which is called “experimental evolution”, showed changes after relatively short period of time. They started to have fewer and bigger offspring, because they felt safe. The question of slavery was a huge question when when the speech was written along. The question was presented as political although it was so much broader and more important than mere political question. Since it was political, women had nothing to do with it. This speech challenged that idea and was trying to involve women into the question concerning everyone. It was the question of justice and equality and everyone should have their own vote for the welfare of entire country. Women felt duty to to something to save enslaved people and to end injustices in the country. They wanted bigger role in society. Their wishes were that every citizen gets their equal protection under the Constitution. They were convinced that we would move forward and  get there eventually.

Ana, her husband Mario, and their four-year-old son, Antonio, just moved to North Carolina. They need a temporary place to call home until they get settled into their new surroundings. Right now, they are staying in a hotel not far from Mario’s job. Ana begins a search for an apartment for the family to live in. First, Ana picks up an Apartment Book at the local newspaper stand. The Apartment Book contains listings of all the major apartment complexes in her area. Ana starts by looking at the prices for apartments in the Apartment Book. Then, she reads about the amenities that each apartment complex offers. For example, some apartments have a clubhouse. Some have a gym, which is also called a fitness center. Some have a pool. Some have all of these! Ana notices that the more amenities an apartment complex has, the more it costs each month. She wants the family’s new apartment to be nice, but she does not want to spend too much money on it. Ana and Mario are trying to save money to buy a house. After considering prices, amenities, and locations, Ana finds several apartment complexes that she thinks the family will like. Ana calls the apartment complexes. She sets up appointments with the apartment managers to see the apartments she thinks are interesting. Ana makes five phone calls in total. When Mario gets back to the hotel from work, Ana shows him the list of apartments. “These look good,” he says. The next day, while Mario is at work and Antonio is at daycare, Ana visits the apartment complexes. She likes the fifth one the best. It is in a good school district. It has a pool, but no fitness center or clubhouse. It is near Mario’s job. Ana hopes to find a job nearby as well. When Ana gets back to the hotel, she discusses all that she has seen with Mario. They decide to rent the last apartment Ana saw. The next day, Ana calls the manager of the apartment complex with the news. The manager asks Ana and Mario to sign a lease and pay a security deposit. If the family damages the apartment in any way while they are living there, the security deposit will help to pay for the cost of repairs. Ana and Mario sign a lease and pay the money. The manager asks them when they plan to move in and Ana looks up at Mario. He looks back at her for a moment and then tells the manager, “In a few days.” Finally, they have a place to stay. Where does chocolate come from? Believe it or not, it grows on trees. Not as a sweet chocolate candy bar wrapped in foil, but as a cocoa bean.

These cocoa beans grow on a cacao tree, which is found in tropical areas such as Central and South America. The fruit of these trees are called pods, and they are long and hard. Inside the pods is a soft, white pulp that surrounds the thirty or so seeds. These seeds are what we call cocoa beans. They are very hard and bitter to the taste. To make chocolate, people start by carefully taking the beans out of the pods, still covered in the white pulp, and leaving them in a bucket. The bucket is often covered with banana leaves and left for anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. This process is called fermenting. Then the beans are left to dry in the sun. Fermenting and drying the beans makes them less bitter. Then the beans are shipped to a factory to be turned into chocolate. At the factory, beans are roasted in ovens to bring out their flavor. After roasting, the outer covering of the bean is removed. The inner bean is then crushed to form a paste known as chocolate liquor. From this paste, people can either make cocoa powder or the chocolate we buy in stores. To make cocoa powder, the paste is crushed and pressed repeatedly to remove the fat, leaving behind only a dry, ground powder. To make chocolate, people need to add other ingredients to the paste such as milk, sugar, and cocoa butter. They then mix and heat the concoction several times to create a substance we would recognize as chocolate. It may even have fruit, nuts, or candy added to it before it is molded into a shape. Considering all that must happen to turn a bitter cocoa bean into a chocolate bar, a dollar seems like a small price to pay for such a delicious sweet treat.

When we are young, we learn that tigers and sharks are dangerous animals. We might be scared of them because they are big and powerful. As we get older, however, we learn that sometimes the most dangerous animals are also the smallest animals. In fact, the animal that kills the most people every year is one that you have probably killed yourself many times: the mosquito. While it may seem that all mosquitoes are biters, this is not actually the case. Male mosquitoes eat plant nectar. On the other hand, female mosquitoes feed on animal blood. They need this blood to live and produce eggs. When a female mosquito bites a human being, it transmits a small amount of saliva into the blood. This saliva may or may not contain a deadly disease. The result of the bite can be as minor as an itchy bump or as serious as death. Because a mosquito can bite many people in the course of its life, it can carry diseases from one person to another very easily. Two of the most deadly diseases carried by mosquitoes are malaria and yellow fever. More than 700 million people become sick from these diseases every year. At least 2 million of these people will die from these diseases. Many scientists are working on safer and better ways to kill mosquitoes, but so far, there is no sure way to protect everyone in the world from their deadly bites. Mosquito nets can be placed over beds to protect people against being bitten. These nets help people stay safe at night, but they do not kill any mosquitoes. Mosquitoes have many natural enemies like bats, birds, dragonflies, and certain kinds of fish. Bringing more of these animals into places where mosquitoes live might help to cut down the amount of mosquitoes in that area. This is a natural solution, but it does not always work very well. Mosquitoes can also be killed with poisons or sprays. Even though these sprays kill mosquitoes, they may also harm other plants or animals. Although mosquitoes may not seem as scary as larger, more powerful animals, they are far more dangerous to human beings. But things are changing. It is highly likely that one day scientists will find a way to keep everyone safe from mosquitoes and the diseases they carry

Liz was just about finished wrapping up the final details for the surprise party she was planning for her husband. She had been meticulously preparing for this event, designing every aspect of the party from the invitations to the food, and she was very excited about it. Family members whom Guermo hadn’t seen in years were flying in from Peru in a few days. Liz had tracked down several college friends, and they were coming from various places across the country. The caterer and band were set. The best part for Liz: she knew Guermo did not have a clue about the party. She could not wait to see the look on his face when he walked into a big “Surprise!” in his own home. The party was to be on Saturday. As Liz was daydreaming about picking relatives up at the airport the next day and taking them to their hotel, Guermo walked into the kitchen and said, quite certainly, “Sweetheart, I don’t want anything special done for my birthday.” “What do you mean?” Liz responded nonchalantly, though her heart began to pound. “I mean that I don’t want a surprise party.” “Okay,” Liz said with a shrug. “Not a problem.” Liz’s mind raced. There was nothing she could do about Guermo’s request now. And, frankly, she didn’t want to. Liz had been planning this for more than a year. The party would go off as she intended. She did not want all of her effort to be for naught. When Guermo came home Saturday evening from playing soccer with friends, he was shocked. Tears filled his eyes. (This response was something Liz had not predicted.) Among the crowd he saw friends whom he had not seen in nearly 20 years and family members who had come from Peru just for this evening. But along with being deeply moved, he was also angry with his wife. He felt ambushed. He knew he could be emotional, and he did not like people to see him that way. That was why he did not like being surprised. Salsa music filled the home of Liz and Guermo. Guests filled up on ceviche, lomo soltado and empanadas. Liz whispered “I love you” in Guermo’s ear, they shared a kiss, and the two danced the night away.

Have you ever heard someone use the phrase “once in a blue moon?” People use this expression to describe something that they do not do very often. For example, someone might say that he tries to avoid eating sweets because they are unhealthy, but will eat chocolate “once in a blue moon.” Or someone who does not usually like to go to the beach might say “I visit the shore once in a blue moon.” While many people use this phrase, not everyone knows the meaning behind it. The first thing to know is that the moon itself is never actually blue. This is just an expression. The phrase “blue moon” actually has to do with the shape of the moon, not the color. As the moon travels around the earth, it appears to change shape. We associate certain names with certain shapes of the moon. For example, when we can see a small part of the moon, it is called a crescent moon. A crescent is a shape that looks like the tip of a fingernail. When we cannot see the moon at all, it is called a new moon. When we can see the entire moon, it is called a full moon. Usually, there is only one full moon every month. Sometimes, however, there will be two full moons in one month. When this happens, the second full moon is called a “blue moon.” Over the next 20 years, there will only be 15 blue moons. As you can see, a blue moon is a very rare event. This fact has led people to use the expression “once in a blue moon” to describe other very rare events in their lives.

Many people like to eat pizza, but not everyone knows how to make it. Making the perfect pizza can be complicated, but there are lots of ways for you to make a more basic version at home. When you make pizza, you must begin with the crust. The crust can be hard to make. If you want to make the crust yourself, you will have to make dough using flour, water, and yeast. You will have to knead the dough with your hands. If you do not have enough time to do this, you can use a prepared crust that you buy from the store. After you have chosen your crust, you must then add the sauce. Making your own sauce from scratch can take a long time. You have to buy tomatoes, peel them, and then cook them with spices. If this sounds like too much work, you can also purchase jarred sauce from the store. Many jarred sauces taste almost as good as the kind you make at home. Now that you have your crust and your sauce, you need to add the cheese. Cheese comes from milk, which comes from cows. Do you have a cow in your backyard? Do you know how to milk the cow? Do you know how to turn that milk into cheese? If not, you might want to buy cheese from the grocery store instead of making it yourself. When you have the crust, sauce, and cheese ready, you can add other toppings. Some people like to put meat on their pizza, while other people like to add vegetables. Some people even like to add pineapple! The best part of making a pizza at home is that you can customize it by adding your own favorite ingredients.

Dana Miller is a bus driver. She drives a bus in the city of Philadelphia. She works the night shift. That means she starts work at 10:00 at night and gets off at 6:00 in the morning. In the world of bus driving, this is sometimes called third shift. Dana has been driving a bus for 15 years. She started when she was 23 years old. She loves her job most of the time. She gets to see the beautiful city from her seat. She gets to meet all kinds of people. There is the guitar player. He lugs his heavy guitar on the bus every Friday night. He plays at a nightspot downtown. People call him Get Low. That is because he likes to play the guitar on his knees. If the bus is not too crowded, Get Low plays in the back of the bus. The bus is seldom crowded at night. He likes to warm up on the bus before shows. There is the woman who works at the pretzel factory. Each day the “Pretzel Lady” brings Dana a bag of fresh, soft pretzels. They fill the bus with a wonderful smell! Sometimes Dana’s job is hard. It is hard when Dana sees people down on their luck. One time, a young woman left her sleeping baby on the bus. There was a note on the baby's blanket asking for help. Dana had to call the police. Another time, a teenaged boy stole money from Dana on the bus. He had a fake gun. Dana thought it was real. She was very scared. Occasionally, driving the bus can be scary. But most of the time, driving the bus is great. Dana does not want to work anywhere else. “How was your night?” Dana’s husband likes to ask when she gets home. “Good music, good food, and a great view of the city,” she says. Ben jumped from bed as soon as the first bit of sun peeped through his window. He grabbed his backpack from his closet and opened it on the floor. Ben put in some of his favorite things to take with him on his trip to visit Grandpa. He put in a book on building forts, a book on making go-carts, and a new book he had gotten from the library about a kid detective who creates his own spy gear. He also put in a model car kit and his stuffed bear. He was ready to go! Going to visit his grandfather for a week by himself was always Ben’s favorite part of summer vacation. Grandpa would take him fishing and to baseball games. Grandpa also taught Ben how to fix things around the house. Last year, when he was eight years old, Ben had learned how to replace a broken doorknob and how to fix a leaky faucet. Grandpa was patient and did not mind taking many hours to show Ben how to use his tools. Ben’s mom stuck her head in his bedroom door. “Grandpa’s here,” she said with a smile. Ben grabbed his backpack and ran into the kitchen where Grandpa was waiting. “Ready, big guy?” asked Grandpa. “Or do you want to eat breakfast before we leave?” “Ready,” said Ben. As he kissed his mother goodbye, he felt his stomach rumble. “We can eat later

Mandatory school uniforms are a bad decisionfor our district. If students are required to wear auniform, it will greatly inhibit their ability to expressthemselves. This is a problem because dress is oneof the major ways that young people express themselves.A school uniform policy also directly violatesthe freedom of expression that all Americans aresupposed to enjoy. Consequently, young people willdoubt that their basic rights are protected, and thiswill affect their larger outlook on civil liberties. Furthermore,school uniforms will interfere with thewearing of certain articles of religious clothing,which will create tensions among certain religiousgroups that can lead to feelings of discrimination.In addition, school uniforms will place an unduefi nancial burden on many low-income families whomay not have the money to spend on new uniformsevery year, especially if they have several children.Finally, school uniforms will negate one of the mostimportant concepts we can teach our children—individuality. When push comes to shove, we’d allbe better off choosing individuality over uniformity.Mandatory school uniforms are a step in the wrongdirection.

Mandatory school uniforms will have a tremendouslypositive impact on our district. If studentsare required to wear a uniform, it will greatlyinhibit gang behavior since they will no longer beable to wear gang colors. As a result, schools willexperience an overall decrease in school violenceand theft. Since violence is one of the major concernsthat parents, teachers, and students raise aboutour district, this change will be welcomed with openarms. In addition, school uniforms will instill amuch-needed sense of discipline in our studentbody, and discipline is something that is, unfortunately,in short supply in our school district. Also,students dressed in uniforms will feel a strong senseof community with their peers, which will lead to a more harmonious school environment. Finally, ifstudents were wearing school uniforms, administratorsand teachers would no longer have to be clothingpolice, freeing them to focus on more importantissues than whether someone is wearing a dress thatis too short or a T-shirt with an inappropriate message.You can make our schools a better place bysupporting mandatory school uniforms.

{1}Colonialism is defined as the control of one force over a dependent area where people live. {2}There have been many wars throughout history and the victors of wars had turned losing countries into their colonies. {3} The colonies were a source of raw materials and cheap labor, and the country that managed them gained a new market for the export of goods and capital.{4} In addition, they were used as military strongholds of the great powers in their struggle for supremacy. {5}Colonialism dates from ancient times the Greeks and Romans formed their first colonies in neighboring countries.{6} At the end of the 15th century a real colonial era began after the discovery of America. {7}Colonialism is a period that has left its mark not only in history, but also in geography, politics, economics, sociology, demography and philosophy. {8}The peak of colonization was in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.{9} A race for colonies ensued. {10}That is the reason why this period is called the era of colonialism. {11}The countries with the most colonies were Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Germany.{12}The era of Colonialism lasted until the end of World War II.

There were several reasons behind our decision to move to Flemington. The fi rstoccurred about 18 months ago when Mark and I decided to start a family. Wewere living in a one-bedroom apartment and we knew that we wanted to moveinto larger quarters before we had a baby. We began to look at houses. Then,much sooner than expected, I got pregnant. Soon after that, Mark’s companyannounced that they were relocating to Flemington, which was in a less expensivepart of the state, about 90 miles south of us. Mark’s company had been goodto him, and they were one of the few around with excellent benefi ts, familyfriendlypolicies, and a child-care center on site. With a baby on the way, thesethings were imperative for us. Since I ran my graphic arts business from home,I wasn’t bound to any particular place, so we began looking at real estate inFlemington and also did some research on their school system as well as theoverall community. We were very excited about what we found—reasonablehousing costs, great schools, and a lively town. Mark then accepted the relocationoffer and we found a beautiful old Tudor house. We’ll be moving about amonth before the baby is due. Let’s hope she doesn’t decide to come early.

There are several changes in the procedure for employees who wish to apply forvacant positions within the company. These changes make it much easier forin-house employees to fi ll vacancies that occur.First, the most important difference is that employees will now be notifi edof all available positions before the positions are advertised for the general public.Accordingly, all in - house candidates will be interviewed before we see anyoutside candidates, and we will offer the job to outside candidates only if nocurrent employees are able to fi ll the position.Second, under the new procedure, in - house employees can be hired evenif they don’t meet all job requirements. Under our old policy, in - house employeeshad to meet all job qualifi cations in order to obtain the vacant position. Now,however, employees who have proven themselves dedicated to the company willbe hired for a vacant position even if they are lacking some minor qualifi cations;training will be provided.A third change involves recommendations. From now on, employees donot need to be recommended for an in - house position before they apply. Instead,employees may apply as soon as they are aware of the vacancy. The remainingprocedures and policies (those regarding increase in pay, interview procedure,and hiring approval) remain the same.

This following is adapted from James Levine, The Start of the Anthropocene. Originally published in 2015.  Humans are in the unconscious process of changing the Earth. Scientists who study the history of the Earth usually divide geological time according to the major changes to the ecology and climate of the Earth. Sometimes scientists cannot exactly determine the beginning of some epoch because many life forms have directly resulted from human activity. Many animals were demise because of hunting. The pace of menace to animals is increased in past years because of advances in technology and agriculture which have led to overexploitation of fragile ecosystems. Indeed, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature has found that, of species surveyed on its Red List of Threatened Species, about a fifth of all mammals and reptiles and nearly a third of amphibians are in danger of extinction. Also, human activity is altering the climate as a whole. Since the Industrial Revolution, the atmosphere is polluted by mining and burning fossil fuels. This is led to rising temperature, warming oceans, rising sea levels, and more frequent extreme weather events. 

This passage is adapted from How the Web Affects Memory 2011 Harvard Magazine Inc. Search engines have changed the way we use the Internet, putting vast sources of information just a few clicks away. But psychology professor of Harvard said that recent research proves that the Internet is changing the way of our memories function. Nowadays people only try to remember fewer facts because they know they can rely on search ad readily available shortcuts. He believed that transaction memory exists in many forms. In addition, he said that now computers and technology as well are becoming virtual extensions of our memory. Working with researchers of Columbia University and of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, they conducted four experiments to demonstrate the phenomenon, using various forms of memory recall to test reliance on computers. Although scientists aren't sure that the Internet would not leave negative consequences, they are sure that Internet has a lot of positive sides. 

This passage is adapted from David Owen, The Conundrum-How scientific innovation, increased efficiently, and good intention can make our energy and climate problems worse. 2011 by David Owen. Building good transit is a great idea, but we also must consider what will happen with old transit. The best option is to convert to bike or bus lines, and in the long term, we will take steps to make driving more pleasant, economical, and productive. New transit will help with spreading suburbs because people won't travel a lot of hours to reach the city. Nevertheless, the main problem is traffic congestion but traffic is, because relieving congestion without doing anything to reduce the total volume of cars can only make the real problem worse. Moving drivers out of the cars and into other forms of transportation can have the same effect if existing traffic lanes are kept in service.     

This passage is adapted from Sabrina Richards, Pleasant to the Touch. 2012 by The Scientist In the early 1990s, it is asserted that human nerves only responded to two types of stimuli: pain and temperature. Sensations of pressure and vibration were believed to travel only along myelinated, fast-signaling nerve fiber, which also gives information about the location. Two scientists corralled 28 young volunteers and recorded nerve signals while gently brushing subjects' arms with their fingertips. The scientists were able to measure how quickly or slowly the nerves fired. In 1999, the group found CT fibers, which can be found only in hairy skin. The scientists decided that these fibers must be conveying a different dimension of sensory information than fast-conducting fibers. The group wanted to determine could that same fiber convey a pleasant sensation? They sought out a patient who had an unusual nerve defect. The patient had developed numbness across many parts of his body after taking penicillin to treat a cough and fever., but she could still sense warmth. The scientists tried to examine which area of the brain lit up when the patient's arm was gently brushed to activate CT fibers. This examination seemed that CT fibers specifically provide a pleasurable sensation. 

This passage is adapted from Peter A. Ensiminger, Life Under the Sun. 2011 by Peter A. Ensiminger. Many millennia before the invention of herbicides, farmers simply plowed their fields to control weeds. Even today, plowing is a very useful method even if plowing kills standing weeds.  Two ecologists began to study the question of what would happen if they bring buried seeds to the surface where their germination is induced by exposure to sunlight. After they finished their experiment, they concluded that soil disturbance gives weed seeds a light break, and this stimulates their germination. More recently, Karl Hartmann of Erlangen University in Germany reasoned that when farmers plowed their fields during the day, the buried weed seeds are briefly exposed to sunlight as the soil is turned over and that this stimulates their germination.  The assumption was true and now this method of weed control during the night is being used by several farmers in Germany. 

The passage is adapted from Michael Balter “Farming Consequered Europe at Least Twice”  by American Association for the Advancement of Science. The rise of agriculture in the Middle East, nearly 11,000 years ago, was a very important event in human prehistory. But just how farming spread from there into Europe has been a matter of intense research. A new study of ancient DNA found in a French cave suggest that early farmers entered the European continents by at least two different routes. Based on DNA researchers conclude that farmers have local European ancestry. In recent years, studies have begun to resolve issues by sequencing the DNA of the prehistoric farmers themselves. The team found that the female and male lineages seemed to have different origins. They found information that most of the skeletons were males. The study also showed that, in contrast to ancient DNA findings from central Europe, the people from Treilles lacked a key genetic variant that allows the body to digest lactose into adulthood. 

A government scheme to keep people healthy Local governments have had to take on a new responsibility and ensure that people will stay fit and healthy. Birmingham council had been encouraging local residents to enrol in the Be active scheme, which allows them to use local leisure services completely free of charge. Each leisure centre must have fulfilled certain criteria to be considered. Be Active classes are also being provided in schools and community centres. Since it was launched in 2008, a third of the local population has signed up for the scheme. The majority were not previously members of a sports club of any kind, half were overweight or obese, and a fifth considered themselves to be in poor health, indicating that the scheme is reaching the people who need it most 

A proposal to build a solar farm near a British village called Barnley The Barnley Village Committee is opposed to plans to build a 6,890 panel solar farm on a 15-acre site adjacent to the village recreation ground, currently used for agriculture. The councilors are due to vote whether or not plans will go ahead. Local residents are invited to attend. They will present their objections before the board, and a representative from the solar firm SunGen will put forward the case for the development. They tried to encourage residents to vote for them and the residents are welcome to make their objections personal, by stating how the plans will affect them as a user of the recreation ground. 

Students accommodations Some university students prefer to live with their families until they graduate and can earn their own living. However, it is also very common for young people beginning university to choose to live together with other students in halls of residence. Although there are several potential downsides to this communal way of living, there are also numerous benefits. A student residence usually can be a very good option. Students can make friends easily, never live alone and residences are usually near the university so students can save money and time at the same time. Despite these clear advantages, there are also considerable drawbacks. Sometimes students' rooms are very small and bathrooms may sometimes have to be shared. Being full of young people, halls can also be very noisy. Likewise, parties and late nights are common and can interfere with students' academic progress. All things considered, there are pros and cons to living in halls. 




 1 A no change    B country    C region    D environment

 2 A no change    B has turned    C turned    D have turned


A In addition, they were used as military strongholds of the great powers in their struggle for supremacy   

B Also, they were used as military strongholds of the great powers in their struggle for supremacy  

C However, they were used as military strongholds of the great powers in their struggle for supremacy    

D Therefore, they were used as military strongholds of the great powers in their struggle for supremacy 

4 A from    B back to    C at    D until 

A: At the end of the 15th century a real colonial era began after the discovery of America.  

  B: A real colonial era began, at the end of 15th century after the discovery of America.    

C: After the discovery of America, at the end of the 15th century a real colonial era began.   

 D: A real colonial era began after the discovery of America, at the end of the 15th century. 

6 Where should sentence 4 logically be placed within the paragraph?    A. Where it is now    B. Before sentence 1    C. After sentence 1    D. Before sentence 6 

7 What is the best thing to do with sentence number 9    A no change    B delete    C replace    D move 

8The author is considering deleting sentence 10. Should the sentence be kept or deleted?  

  A. Kept, because give more information about colonialism.  

  B. Kept, because give better explanation about colonialism.  

  C. Deleted, because sentence destroying point of text.   

 D. Deleted, because sentence is unnecessary.